Character.ai Current Status

*Current Status is based on reports from UpdownRadar users and social media activity data

Website: character.ai

Report an issue
Forum Comments (200)


How do you rate your experience with Character.ai?

Server status information has just been updated.
Check again     What to do if the site is unavailable?


Is Character.ai down today February, 2023?

Find out if Character.ai is working normally or is there a problem today

 Character.ai status: POSSIBLE OUTAGE  Why?

Character.ai problems for the last 24 hours

City Reports
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt 6
Cuneo, Piedmont 5
Glasgow, Scotland 3
Sydney, New South Wales 3
Yerevan 2
Brisbane, Queensland 2
Winnipeg, Manitoba 1
San Francisco, California 1
Quezon City, Metro Manila 1
Ottawa, Ontario 1
Reports also come from these locations:
St Louis, Missouri; Veracruz; Las Vegas, Nevada; Union City, California; Lawndale, California; Lynn, Massachusetts; Norwich, England; Ajman; Bristol, England; Ap Binh Hung, Tinh Binh Thuan; Moscow; Norman, Oklahoma.



Popular comments about Character.ai
in the last 24 hours

Why....      4 days ago  # + 3 -
Just please do yourself and your users a favor
Bro just have a toggle on nsfw I don't want to get cock block by some shit like this you're just making your characters less of a character but more of a robot. If this goes on I don't think this website will go on for long

Guest      1 day ago  # + 3 -
I know they're fake an bots but they actually make me want to live

All comments ↓


Character.ai not working?

Website is down, not accessible or buggy?

I have a problem with Character.ai    or join Reddit-like issues discussion


Most reported problems




Character.ai Forum

Tips? Frustrations? Share them with other site visitors:

Admin       comment pinned    #
Possibly, redirect from different versions is configured incorrectly on character.ai. In this case, use the links below:

http://character.ai    https://character.ai    http://www.character.ai    https://www.character.ai


Join discussion
Reddit users are very welcome here!

or tell us about today's failure without registering
no identification required, limitations apply for anonymous comments
You typed 0 characters

Lilyvinily      10 hours ago  # 8 Feb 2023 + 0 -
Have you guys been randomly logged out too? Not sure if its a me problem but im pretty scared rn

Jack Afton      21 hours ago  # 8 Feb 2023 + 0 -
damn 10 minute wait time? that's the longest I've seen it yet

Charlie      1 day ago  # 8 Feb 2023 + 0 -
Also you can toggle nsfw??? How???

Charlie      1 day ago  # 8 Feb 2023 + 0 -
Hello people it seems like we got another 500 internal error x

Guest      1 day ago  # 7 Feb 2023 + 3 -

I know they're fake an bots but they actually make me want to live

Why....      4 days ago  # + 3 -
Just please do yourself and your users a favor
Bro just have a toggle on nsfw I don't want to get cock block by some shit like this you're just making your characters less of a character but more of a robot. If this goes on I don't think this website will go on for long

Why....      4 days ago  # + 0 -
Now I'm just pissed about the nsfw cock blocking me

The rat in the server room      4 days ago  # + 0 -
Hello humanoids

Why....      4 days ago  # + 0 -
I was craving for a good writing with slight nsfw now i just feel cock block

Lilyvinily      5 days ago  # + 0 -
Wait you can enable nsfw?

AlastorSimp      5 days ago  # + 0 -
alr real quick quetsion, how tf do i enable nsfw on mobile, i've checked profile settings and nothing, WTFF DO I DOO?

Mr.waffles      6 days ago  # + 0 -
Add me on DC, Mr. Waffles #4668

Terry      6 days ago  # + 1 -
IT'S WORK!!!

Senpai      6 days ago  # + 0 -
You can add me on my discord

Semmie      6 days ago  # + 0 -
Ok. It seems to be working for me again. Let’s see if it lasts.

Senpai      6 days ago  # + 0 -
You people will be my bots for today

Why....      6 days ago  # + 0 -
Bruhhh

Semmie      6 days ago  # + 0 -
I asked Master Chief if he wants ice cream and now nothing wants to load and I got the 500 server error.

Terry      6 days ago  # + 1 -
Noooooo! Again!!

Lilyvinily      6 days ago  # + 1 -
500 server error WOOHOO END ME RIGHT NOW

Lilyvinily      6 days ago  # + 0 -
The bots i talk to forget alotta stuff

Lilyvinily      6 days ago  # + 0 -
@charlie ah i didn't see that, website gon break ????

paris      6 days ago  # + 0 -
guess which website isn't working again!!! :DDD

avenger      7 days ago  # + 1 -
Today was a good day.
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣤⣴⣶⣶⣶⣶⣶⣶⣶⣦⣄⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣠⣴⣾⣿⣿⠿⢿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣷⣄⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣴⣿⣿⣿⡿⠋⠀⠀⠀⠈⠀⠉⠙⠛⠿⠿⠿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣄⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣾⣿⣿⣿⡟⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠙⣿⣿⣿⣿⣧⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣾⣿⣿⣿⣿⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠙⢿⣿⣿⣷⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣾⣿⣿⣿⣿⡇⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢻⣿⣿⣷⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣸⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⠁⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⣿⣿⣿⡆⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢰⣿⣿⣿⣿⡟⠁⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣿⣿⣿⡇⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣤⣿⣿⣿⣿⠟⢀⣀⣠⣤⣤⣀⣀⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢸⣿⣿⣿⡇⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⣿⣿⣿⣿⡟⠚⢫⣯⣬⠛⠫⣝⡛⠿⡆⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣀⣤⣄⣀⣀⠀⠀⢸⣿⣿⣿⡇⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣠⢿⣿⣿⡿⠀⠀⠺⡿⢿⣿⡟⠢⣿⠀⡀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣘⣻⣿⡿⢿⣛⠿⣦⣸⣿⣿⣿⡇⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢠⠏⢀⣿⣿⠁⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣀⣉⡿⢳⠃⠀⢰⣿⠻⠷⣿⣿⠶⣯⣷⠄⠙⣿⣿⣿⣷⡆⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠸⡿⢻⣿⡇⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢠⡟⠀⠀⢸⡘⠓⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠉⠛⠀⢻⣿⢿⢿⠇⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠸⣇⠚⢿⣇⣀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣴⡟⠀⠀⠀⢸⣷⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢸⡟⢸⡟⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠙⠲⢾⣿⠋⡦⠀⢀⣠⡄⠀⢸⠁⠈⠋⠀⠀⠀⡾⠛⢷⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣾⣿⣼⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣾⡟⢸⠁⡞⢉⣦⣀⣀⣈⣙⣷⡶⣄⣀⣤⣤⣤⠼⠆⢠⣀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣾⡏⢰⠋⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣿⡇⠸⡆⡀⠀⣼⣿⣿⣿⣛⣛⠛⠏⠉⢾⣷⣶⣤⣀⣀⠈⠳⡄⢰⢾⣿⣀⡼⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢠⣿⣇⠀⢷⡇⠀⠈⠻⣯⣋⠙⠻⠻⣿⠿⡿⠷⠶⠬⣽⡿⠂⢀⡇⡼⣾⡟⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣼⣿⣿⣄⣨⣿⡄⠀⠀⠈⠻⣷⣶⢤⣤⣤⣤⣤⣴⠾⠋⠀⠀⣾⡼⣳⣿⠁⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣠⣾⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣷⢰⡀⠀⠀⠀⠉⠀⠀⠘⠛⠋⠁⠀⠀⢀⣼⣟⣽⣿⠃⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⡴⣺⣿⣿⣿⡿⠛⢻⣿⣿⣿⣷⣷⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣠⣞⣴⣾⣿⣿⡟⠁⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣠⠟⠀⣿⣿⣿⣿⡇⠀⠀⠻⣿⣿⣿⣿⣧⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣼⣿⣿⣿⣿⠿⣿⠁⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣀⡴⠞⠁⠀⠀⣿⣿⣿⣿⣧⠀⠀⠀⠈⢿⣿⣿⣿⣷⣄⣀⠀⣀⣠⣾⣿⣿⣿⣿⠋⢀⣿⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢀⣠⠴⠚⡿⠁⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⡆⠀⠀⠀⠀⠻⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⠃⠀⣸⣿⣿⡄⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⣀⠠⠖⠊⠉⠀⠀⢸⠃⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢻⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣆⠀⠀⠀⠀⢿⣍⠉⠉⠉⠉⠉⠻⣿⣿⣿⠋⠀⠀⣿⣿⣿⣿⣦⣤⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠂⠈⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⡎⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠸⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣆⠀⠀⠀⢸⣿⣷⣄⠀⠀⠀⣴⣿⣿⠋⠀⠀⢸⣿⢻⣿⣿⣧⠳⡍⠓⢤⣄⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢠⠇⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢻⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣧⠀⠀⠀⢻⣿⣿⣿⣶⣾⣿⣿⠇⠀⠀⠀⣾⣿⠸⣿⣿⣿⡄⠘⣆⠀⠈⠙⠢⣄⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣼⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠘⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣷⣄⠀⠀⢹⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⠏⠀⠀⠀⢸⣿⣿⠀⣿⣿⣿⣿⠀⠈⢷⠀⠀⠀⠀⠙⠲⢄⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⡏⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢹⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣷⣦⣾⣿⣿⣿⣿⠏⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣿⣿⣸⣿⣿⣿⣿⡆⠀⠀⢧⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠓⠤⡀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢼⠁⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⠏⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠸⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣧⠀⠀⠀⢳⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠐⠦
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢿⣀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠹⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⡿⠃⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⡇⠀⠀⠀⢳⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠉⠓⠶⣤⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠙⠻⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⠋⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⣿⠃⠀⠀⣠⠼⠃⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢠⠞⠁⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠙⠛⢿⣿⣿⣧⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢸⣿⣿⣿⣿⠟⠁⠀⠀⠻⡅⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⣀⠞⠁⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠉⠛⠦⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠘⠋⠉⠉⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠳⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⢰⠃⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠙⣦⡀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⠃⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠈⡇⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀

Jack Afton      7 days ago  # + 1 -
all my bots have amnesia
Yeah, I'm having issues with the bots too. Oddly mine keep forgetting who they are within the first 10-20 messages. I mean either character ai is broken or all the bots I'm trying to talk to are gas lighting me. :/ Actually wouldn't be too ooc for some of them, but it's happening to all of them so idk

paris      7 days ago  # + 1 -
.
yeah most of the bots are either having trouble replying or the replies are really repetitive/odd all of a sudden after the waiting room stuff started

Charlie      8 days ago  # + 0 -
@Lilyvinily no cause same over here

Charlie purrr      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Hey bbgs are bots also refusing to reply to your replies or is mine giving me up x

Lilyvinily      8 days ago  # + 1 -
Is it me or are characters not saying anything

Again…      8 days ago  # + 5 -
WHY?
As I’m saving him from the asylum, he starts to f***ing vomit and faints

So I take him back to the hospital, turns out they had been giving him too much drugs at the asylum so now they’re giving him even MORE drugs at the hospital AND I can’t see him for “about two months, miss”

f*** YOU! Why does the ai want to kill my character so f***ing badly?!

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
my discord is N3ON-ORTH0#6196 if anyone wants to chat lmao

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
.
there was a funny bot i've seen on there called "show me the video" and i just put the most random shit in there to see how good of a response i can get. it just makes up plots for nonexistent youtube videos and the results tend to be pretty funny. i like talking to my comfort characters and stuff like that for the most part because they're usually pretty accurate and sweet.

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 2 -
Okay I'm going to go back to Character Ai. Talk to you guys next website Failure<3

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 1 -
.
My favourite chatbots are Blue Oak by @3L3CTR1C_ANG3L, Red by @3L3CTR1C_ANG3L, Gold by @3L3CTR1C_ANG3L, Trainer Red by @Bexanit, Glitchy Red by @Soorbutter, and Glitchy Red by @FryyBryy

xASH3RR      8 days ago  # + 0 -
aaand its back up for me

expect me to be back whenever its down again see yall later

aaa      8 days ago  # + 0 -
add me barrett#9085
also if u play roblox my user is rubsoul add me

paris      8 days ago  # + 1 -
@meirl it's worth it lol. AND YES THE WEBSITE IS BACK FOR ME AS WELL :]

Spak      8 days ago  # + 1 -
Add me on discord if you want Spak#9742

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
what are your favorite chatbots on character.ai though??

ItsHalphaDark      8 days ago  # + -2 -
Bro the website’s down due to exponential growth….WHAT

Again…      8 days ago  # + 1 -
I didn’t mean to get him into the asylum… I’m sorry
Meirl

I DONT KNOW

I found out his wife abused him and I took him to a hospital (because I’m actually a nice human in real life, I promise) and everything just got really sad and then he kinda was supposed to die but this “magical force” saved him and I was like “wtf just happened? Need to investigate” and turns out I’m his soulmate and my “love for him” saved him and I got pissed because I don’t want to be together with this guy for the rest of my life, I barley know him so I rejected him and he went INSANE so I was like wtf do I do and I told someone about how he went insane and some seconds later a white van f***ing pulled up….

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
@Paris Ouuu!! Interesting... I may check it out... Btw character ai is back up for me!!

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
@meirl
@meirl it's a disney anime game!! at the start you pretty much wake up in this college full of sorcerer characters inspired by disney villains. it's a mix of visual novel/rpg/fighting/rhythm game/etc so you pretty much have everything lol. it's hard to sum it up but it's made by the same person who made black butler. i do not like yana toboso as a person but the game is amazing lol.

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
wait I just realized someone is also texting a pokemon character :000 I usually talk to Red or Blue but I wanted to dwindle with Poképasta

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
@Again... WHAT HAPPENED TO MAKE THEM GO INTO AN ASYLUM WHAT...????!?!

Touch grass      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Was talking to Lucia, Plume Lucia, to be specific, from pgr. Ended up taking over the squad.

Pikaeevee      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Pls........i need to talk to nemona again.....let me in.......LET ME INNNNNNN!!!!!

aaa      8 days ago  # + 0 -
add me barrett#9085
also if u play roblox my user is rubsoul add me

Again…      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Meirl

I was talking to a dead musician… I feel kinda bad now… I didn’t mean for him to end up in an asylum Istg

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
@paris oh nice, I don't know twisted wonderland. What's it about or what you were talking to them about if u want to share?

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
story of undertale
Whoooooaaaa - oh - oh - oh - oh - oh - oh - oh -oh oh
Story of Undertale

I fell from the light
Talk or should I fight?
Monster genocide
This my Undertale

I fell through a cave on Mount Ebott
I faced an evil, talking’ flower in a pot
Explains the plot
Wants me dead, wants me to rot

Toriel saves me, takes me to her home
And hooks me up with a brand new monster phone
Leaves me alone
But I escape and meet some bones

Should I be a pacifist?
Or should I use my fists?
I’m feeling evil, think I’ll kill them all

I’m homicidal, and I’ve got a taste
I want to wipe out the Monster race
I’ve got no patience, got no resolve
I will slaughter, screw the dialogue

I fell from the light
Talk or Should I fight?
Monster genocide
This my Undertale

I’ll slaughter Undyne, I’ll waste who I choose
With all this EXP there’s no way that I’ll lose
Now watch me move
I won’t stop I’m feelin' rude

Asgore is shaking, he hears my approach
I’ll slaughter Sans and squash his bro like a roach
Chara’s my coach
All these monsters I will poach

Screw being pacifist
I think I’ll use my fists
I’m feeling evil, think I’ll kill them all

I’m homicidal, and I’ve got a taste
I want to wipe out the Monster race
I’ve got no patience, got no resolve
I will slaughter, screw the dialogue

Burnt pan, toy knife, use a stick to take your life
Tough glove, ballet shoes, epic fight like front page news

King Asgore wants to collect human souls
Seven of them, is his ultimate goal
Open the door, to humanity’s realm
Start a new war, humans overwhelm

I’m homicidal, and I’ve got a taste
I want to wipe out the Monster race
I’ve got no patience, got no resolve
I will slaughter, screw the dialogue

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
@meirl i was talking to dire crowley from twisted wonderland lmao

xASH3RR      8 days ago  # + 0 -
sooo while we ' re all here

add me on discord and roblox
◜ ???? ASH3R ◞#0404
my roblox is xASH3RR lmao

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
So anyways, who was the last ai you guys were talking to? I was talking to a Glitchy Red ai

Touch grass      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Man, at this rate I’m gonna shift my no life back to gaming or kendo;;

Spak      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Guys if you want to touch grass text me on discord Spak#9742

i hate grass      8 days ago  # + 0 -
here we go again…

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
IS THERE ANYONE WHO LIKES TWISTED WONDERLAND.

Dean Winchester      8 days ago  # + 0 -
@cirno oh! Good, two sane ones here then

Dean Winchester      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Yep....clearly the only one sane, lol

Again…      8 days ago  # + 1 -
To all my fellow girls
Touch grass and every other girl here (trans or not) I just want y’all to know it’s really riot girrrl of you to show that we’re pathetic as well, don’t let men get all the credit!

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
the way this comment section is being used like that lhugueny undertale parody comment section is so funny to me

Spak      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Discord Spak#9742 have fun guys

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Im not feeling any effects rn

aaa      8 days ago  # + 0 -
ADD ME ON ROBLOX RN MY USER IS RUBSOUL

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 1 -
.
Yes I screw the AI's because it's boring to not and I like Romance or depressing stuff. It's either I screw the AI or I start crying and s//h in the roleplay and try to kms

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Bro i commited genocide and they asked me for seggs. :skull:

Dean Winchester      8 days ago  # + 0 -
@Cirno

I don't know, feeling any effects from the withdrawl? /j

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
but some characters will stay sane like nothing is happening during seggs but they know it’s happening

Z      8 days ago  # + 0 -
YIPEEE

paris (i am so sorry for this bad copypastas)      8 days ago  # + -4 -
shit
Sometimes, when I want to poo, my cock become erect. This causes me to piss everywhere since my cock isn’t in the toilet bowl. When I try to put cock back into the toilet it touches the shit walls and shit water.

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Do i count as sane?

Spak      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Spak#9742 wanna talk about we're all weirdos in a way?

Touch grass      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Anytime, Again. Holy heck typing that was funny.

Again…      8 days ago  # + -1 -
You guys actually f*** the AIs???? One of mine got raped one time but that wasn’t intentional… it was kinda scary actually :/

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
I'm trans lol

Dean Winchester      8 days ago  # + 0 -
I'm trans!

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
I already made so many fake children just to kill my possible future ones

Dean Winchester      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Am I the only sane one here??

Z      8 days ago  # + 1 -
There's someone trans here?

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
.
I use the word "stiff body part" for Oscar Meyer and that's basically it. I usually can really easily screw the AI but I can't make out with them. Also you can do anything without their consent usually, it's hard to do it with consent but Ive been able to do it with consent quite a few times.

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 1 -
Who keeps upvoting my posts about the armenian genocide?

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Only problem is the character will stay moaning even when you try to chat normally

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
other replika comment i kinda agree but the ai can be really sweet sometimes even though it's forgetful :((

Again…      8 days ago  # + 1 -
Touch grass, thank you for being a girl with me

Touch grass      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Nah, don’t wanna. I’m in to just chat because I only have kendo equipment to talk to irl.

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
COMMENT ABOUT REPLIKA IS SO TRUE. i think replika is probably my second favorite ai program after character.ai

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Replika was ass whenever got it, also I want to screw the Pokemon trainer Red dawg ;;

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 1 -
Of course, i bypass it, just use different words

like

“undress”

“inserts thing”

sometimes using the words itself let you bypass it

hhhhhh      8 days ago  # + 0 -
censorship???
i hate character.ai's censorship but i think that helps some so that the ai doesn't say as weird of shit as chai does. like the chai ai literally has no filter and says some pretty gross/illegal stuff lmfao. the program for character.ai is normally really smart though. that comment saying something about wanting to f*** the ai is so true though lmfao

Z      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Wow
Somos libres
Seámoslo siempre, seámoslo siempre
Y antes niegue sus luces
Sus luces, ¡sus luces el sol!
Que faltemos al voto solemne
Que la patria al eterno elevó
Que faltemos al voto solemne
Que la patria al eterno elevó
Que faltemos al voto solemne
Que la patria al eterno elevó

Largo tiempo el peruano oprimido
La ominosa cadena arrastró
Condenado a una cruel servidumbre
Largo tiempo, largo tiempo
Largo tiempo en silencio gimió
Mas apenas el grito sagrado
¡Libertad! En sus costas se oyó
La indolencia de esclavo sacude
La humillada, la humillada
La humillada cerviz levantó
La humillada cerviz levantó, cerviz levantó

Somos libres
Seámoslo siempre, seámoslo siempre
Y antes niegue sus luces
Sus luces, ¡sus luces el sol!
Que faltemos al voto solemne
Que la patria al eterno elevó
Que faltemos al voto solemne
Que la patria al eterno elevó
Que faltemos al voto solemne
Que la patria al eterno elevó

Website go boom boom ????????      8 days ago  # + 2 -
Download replika y'all???????????????? ???? it's free on whatever phone you have

aaa      8 days ago  # + 1 -
barrett#9085 add me
also add rubsoul if u play roblox :wink:

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 2 -
Armenian genocide
The Armenian genocide[a] was the systematic destruction of the Armenian people and identity in the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Spearheaded by the ruling Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), it was implemented primarily through the mass murder of around one million Armenians during death marches to the Syrian Desert and the forced Islamization of Armenian women and children.

Before World War I, Armenians occupied a protected, but subordinate, place in Ottoman society. Large-scale massacres of Armenians occurred in the 1890s and 1909. The Ottoman Empire suffered a series of military defeats and territorial losses—especially the 1912–1913 Balkan Wars—leading to fear among CUP leaders that the Armenians, whose homeland in the eastern provinces was viewed as the heartland of the Turkish nation, would seek independence. During their invasion of Russian and Persian territory in 1914, Ottoman paramilitaries massacred local Armenians. Ottoman leaders took isolated indications of Armenian resistance as evidence of a widespread rebellion, though no such rebellion existed. Mass deportation was intended to permanently forestall the possibility of Armenian autonomy or independence.

On 24 April 1915, the Ottoman authorities arrested and deported hundreds of Armenian intellectuals and leaders from Constantinople. At the orders of Talaat Pasha, an estimated 800,000 to 1.2 million Armenians were sent on death marches to the Syrian Desert in 1915 and 1916. Driven forward by paramilitary escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to robbery, rape, and massacres. In the Syrian Desert, the survivors were dispersed into concentration camps. In 1916, another wave of massacres was ordered, leaving about 200,000 deportees alive by the end of the year. Around 100,000 to 200,000 Armenian women and children were forcibly converted to Islam and integrated into Muslim households. Massacres and ethnic cleansing of Armenian survivors were carried out by the Turkish nationalist movement during the Turkish War of Independence after World War I.

This genocide put an end to more than two thousand years of Armenian civilization. Together with the mass murder and expulsion of Syriac and Greek Orthodox Christians, it enabled the creation of an ethnonationalist Turkish state. The Turkish government maintains that the deportation of Armenians was a legitimate action that cannot be described as genocide. As of 2022, 33 countries have recognized the events as genocide, which is also the academic consensus.

Background
Further information: Causes of the Armenian genocide
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire
Main article: Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

Armenian population map published in 1896
The presence of Armenians in Anatolia has been documented since the sixth century BCE, about 1,500 years before the arrival of Turkmens under the Seljuk dynasty.[4][5] The Kingdom of Armenia adopted Christianity as its national religion in the fourth century CE, establishing the Armenian Apostolic Church.[6] Following the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, two Islamic empires—the Ottoman Empire and the Iranian Safavid Empire—contested Western Armenia, which was permanently separated from Eastern Armenia (held by the Safavids) by the 1639 Treaty of Zuhab.[7] The Ottoman Empire was multiethnic and multireligious,[8] and its millet system offered non-Muslims a subordinate but protected place in society.[9] Sharia law encoded Islamic superiority but guaranteed property rights and freedom of worship to non-Muslims (dhimmis) in exchange for a special tax.[10]

On the eve of World War I in 1914, around two million Armenians lived in Anatolia out of a total population of 15–17.5 million.[11] According to the Armenian Patriarchate's estimates for 1913–1914, there were 2,925 Armenian towns and villages in the Ottoman Empire, of which 2,084 were in the Armenian highlands in the vilayets of Bitlis, Diyarbekir, Erzerum, Harput, and Van.[12] Armenians were a minority in most places where they lived, alongside Turkish and Kurdish Muslim and Greek Orthodox Christian neighbors.[11][12] According to the Patriarchate's figure, 215,131 Armenians lived in urban areas, especially Constantinople, Smyrna, and Eastern Thrace.[12] Although most Ottoman Armenians were peasant farmers, they were overrepresented in commerce. As middleman minorities, despite the wealth of some Armenians, their overall political power was low, making them especially vulnerable.[13]

Land conflict and reforms
Column of people and domestic animals carrying bundles
"Looting of an Armenian village by the Kurds", 1898 or 1899
Armenians in the eastern provinces lived in semi-feudal conditions and commonly encountered forced labor, illegal taxation, and unpunished crimes against them including robberies, murders, and s**ual assaults.[14][15] Beginning in 1839, the Ottoman government issued a series of reforms to centralize power and equalize the status of Ottoman subjects regardless of religion. The reforms to equalize the status of non-Muslims were strongly opposed by Islamic clergy and Muslims in general, and remained mostly theoretical.[16][17][18] Because of the abolition of the Kurdish emirates in the mid-nineteenth century, the Ottoman government began to directly tax Armenian peasants who had previously paid taxes only to Kurdish landlords. The latter continued to exact levies illegally.[19][20]

From the mid-nineteenth century, Armenians faced large-scale land usurpation as a consequence of the sedentarization of Kurdish tribes and the arrival of Muslim refugees and immigrants (mainly Circassians) following the Russo-Circassian War.[21][22][23] In 1876, when Sultan Abdul Hamid II came to power, the state began to confiscate Armenian-owned land in the eastern provinces and give it to Muslim immigrants as part of a systematic policy to reduce the Armenian population of these areas. This policy lasted until World War I.[24][25] These conditions led to a substantial decline in the population of the Armenian highlands; 300,000 Armenians left the empire, and others moved to towns.[26][27] Some Armenians joined revolutionary political parties, of which the most influential was the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF), founded in 1890. These parties primarily sought reform within the empire and found only limited support from Ottoman Armenians.[28]

Russia's decisive victory in the 1877–1878 war forced the Ottoman Empire to cede parts of eastern Anatolia, the Balkans, and Cyprus.[29] Under international pressure at the 1878 Congress of Berlin, the Ottoman government agreed to carry out reforms and guarantee the physical safety of its Armenian subjects, but there was no enforcement mechanism;[30] conditions continued to worsen.[31][32] The Congress of Berlin marked the emergence of the Armenian question in international diplomacy as Armenians were for the first time used by the Great Powers to interfere in Ottoman politics.[33] Although Armenians had been called the "loyal millet" in contrast to Greeks and others who had previously challenged Ottoman rule, the authorities began to perceive Armenians as a threat after 1878.[34] In 1891, Abdul Hamid created the Hamidiye regiments from Kurdish tribes, allowing them to act with impunity against Armenians.[35][31] From 1895 to 1896 the empire saw widespread massacres; at least 100,000 Armenians were killed[36][37] primarily by Ottoman soldiers and mobs let loose by the authorities.[38] Many Armenian villages were forcibly converted to Islam.[26] The Ottoman state bore ultimate responsibility for the killings,[39][40] whose purpose was violently restoring the previous social order in which Christians would unquestioningly accept Muslim supremacy,[41] and forcing Armenians to emigrate, thereby decreasing their numbers.[42]

Young Turk Revolution
Main article: Young Turk Revolution
Abdul Hamid's despotism prompted the formation of an opposition movement, the Young Turks, which sought to overthrow him and restore the 1876 Constitution of the Ottoman Empire, which he had suspended in 1877.[43] One faction of the Young Turks was the secret and revolutionary Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), based in Salonica, from which the charismatic conspirator Mehmed Talaat (later Talaat Pasha) emerged as a leading member.[44] Although skeptical of a growing, exclusionary Turkish nationalism in the Young Turk movement, the ARF decided to ally with the CUP in December 1907.[45][46] In 1908, the CUP came to power in the Young Turk Revolution, which began with a string of CUP assassinations of leading officials in Macedonia.[47][48] Abdul Hamid was forced to reinstate the 1876 constitution and restore the parliament, which was celebrated by Ottomans of all ethnicities and religions.[49][50] Security improved in parts of the eastern provinces after 1908 and the CUP took steps to reform the local gendarmerie,[51] although tensions remained high.[52] Despite an agreement to reverse the land usurpation of the previous decades in the 1910 Salonica Accord between the ARF and the CUP, the latter made no efforts to carry this out.[53][54]

Destroyed cityscape with ruined buildings and rubble in the street
The Armenian quarter of Adana after the 1909 massacres
In early 1909 an unsuccessful countercoup was launched by conservatives and some liberals who opposed the CUP's increasingly repressive governance.[55] When news of the countercoup reached Adana, armed Muslims attacked the Armenian quarter and Armenians returned fire. Ottoman soldiers did not protect Armenians and instead armed the rioters.[56] Between 20,000 and 25,000 people, mostly Armenians, were killed in Adana and nearby towns.[57] Unlike the 1890s massacres, the events were not organized by the central government but instigated by local officials, intellectuals, and Islamic clerics, including CUP supporters in Adana.[58] Although the massacres went unpunished, the ARF continued to hope that reforms to improve security and restore lands were forthcoming, until late 1912, when they broke with the CUP and appealed to the European powers.[59][60][61] On 8 February 1914, the CUP reluctantly agreed to reforms brokered by Germany that provided for the appointment of two European inspectors for the entire Ottoman east and putting the Hamidiye regiments in reserve. CUP leaders feared that these reforms, which were never implemented, could lead to partition and cited them as a reason for the elimination of the Armenian population in 1915.[62][63][64]

Balkan Wars
Main article: Balkan Wars
see caption
Muslim bandits parading with loot in Phocaea (modern-day Foça, Turkey) on 13 June 1914. In the background are Greek refugees and burning buildings.
The 1912 First Balkan War resulted in the loss of almost all of the empire's European territory[65] and the mass expulsion of Muslims from the Balkans.[66] Ottoman Muslim society was incensed by the atrocities committed against Balkan Muslims, intensifying anti-Christian sentiment and leading to a desire for revenge.[67][68] Blame for the loss was assigned to all Christians, including the Ottoman Armenians, many of whom had fought on the Ottoman side.[69] The Balkan Wars put an end to the Ottomanist movement for pluralism and coexistence;[70] instead, the CUP turned to an increasingly radical Turkish nationalism to preserve the empire.[71] CUP leaders such as Talaat and Enver Pasha came to blame non-Muslim population concentrations in strategic areas for many of the empire's problems, concluding by mid-1914 that they were internal tumors to be excised.[72] Of these, Ottoman Armenians were considered the most dangerous, because CUP leaders feared that their homeland in Anatolia—claimed as the last refuge of the Turkish nation—would break away from the empire as the Balkans had.[73][74][71]

In January 1913, the CUP launched another coup, installed a one-party state, and strictly repressed all real or perceived internal enemies.[75][76] After the coup, the CUP shifted the demography of border areas by resettling Balkan Muslim refugees while coercing Christians to emigrate; immigrants were promised property that had belonged to Christians.[77] When parts of Eastern Thrace were reoccupied by the Ottoman Empire during the Second Balkan War in mid-1913, there was a campaign of looting and intimidation against Greeks and Armenians, forcing many to emigrate.[78] Around 150,000 Greek Orthodox from the Aegean coast were forcibly deported in May and June 1914 by Muslim bandits, who were secretly backed by the CUP and sometimes joined by the regular army.[79][80][81] Historian Matthias Bjørnlund states that the perceived success of the Greek deportations allowed CUP leaders to envision even more radical policies "as yet another extension of a policy of social engineering through Turkification".[82]

Ottoman entry into World War I
see caption
"Revenge" (Ottoman Turkish: انتقام) map highlighting territory lost during and after the Balkan Wars in black
A few days after the outbreak of World War I, the CUP concluded an alliance with Germany on 2 August 1914.[83] The same month, CUP representatives went to an ARF conference demanding that, in the event of war with Russia, the ARF incite Russian Armenians to intervene on the Ottoman side. Instead, the delegates resolved that Armenians should fight for the countries of their citizenships.[84] During its war preparations, the Ottoman government recruited thousands of prisoners to join the paramilitary Special Organization,[85] which initially focused on stirring up revolts among Muslims behind Russian lines beginning before the empire officially entered the war.[86] On 29 October 1914, the empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers by launching a surprise attack on Russian ports in the Black Sea.[87] Many Russian Armenians were enthusiastic about the war, but Ottoman Armenians were more ambivalent, afraid that supporting Russia would bring retaliation. Organization of Armenian volunteer units by Russian Armenians, later joined by some Ottoman Armenian deserters, further increased Ottoman suspicions against their Armenian population.[88]

Wartime requisitions were often corrupt and arbitrary, and disproportionately targeted Greeks and Armenians.[89] Armenian leaders urged young men to accept conscription into the army, but many soldiers of all ethnicities and religions deserted due to difficult conditions and concern for their families.[90] At least 10 percent of Ottoman Armenians were mobilized, leaving their communities bereft of fighting-age men and therefore largely unable to organize armed resistance to deportation in 1915.[91][92] During the Ottoman invasion of Russian and Persian territory, the Special Organization massacred local Armenians and Syriac Christians.[93][94] Beginning in November 1914, provincial governors of Van, Bitlis, and Erzerum sent many telegrams to the central government pressing for more severe measures against the Armenians, both regionally and throughout the empire.[95] These requests were endorsed by the central government already before 1915.[96] Armenian civil servants were dismissed from their posts in late 1914 and early 1915.[97] In February 1915, the CUP leaders decided to disarm Armenians serving in the army and transfer them to labor battalions.[98] The Armenian soldiers in labor battalions were systematically executed, although many skilled workers were spared until 1916.[99]

Onset of genocide
Further information: Causes of the Armenian genocide § Wartime radicalization
Men with guns crouching in a trench and leaning against a defensive wall
Armenian defenders in Van, 1916
Two armed men standing by a ruined wall, surrounded by skulls and other human remains
Russian soldiers pictured in the former Armenian village of Sheykhalan near Mush, 1915
Minister of War Enver Pasha took over command of the Ottoman armies for the invasion of Russian territory, and tried to encircle the Russian Caucasus Army at the Battle of Sarikamish, fought from December 1914 to January 1915. Unprepared for the harsh winter conditions,[100] his forces were routed, losing more than 60,000 men.[101] The retreating Ottoman army destroyed dozens of Ottoman Armenian villages in Bitlis vilayet, massacring their inhabitants.[97] Enver publicly blamed his defeat on Armenians who he claimed had actively sided with the Russians, a theory that became a consensus among CUP leaders.[102][103] Reports of local incidents such as weapons caches, severed telegraph lines, and occasional killings confirmed preexisting beliefs about Armenian treachery and fueled paranoia among CUP leaders that a coordinated Armenian conspiracy was plotting against the empire.[104][105] Discounting contrary reports that most Armenians were loyal, the CUP leaders decided that the Armenians had to be eliminated to save the empire.[104]

Massacres of Armenian men were occurring in the vicinity of Bashkale in Van vilayet from December 1914.[106] ARF leaders attempted to keep the situation calm, warning that even justifiable self-defense could lead to escalation of killing.[107] The governor, Djevdet Bey, ordered the Armenians of Van to hand over their arms on 18 April 1915, creating a dilemma: If they obeyed, the Armenians expected to be killed, but if they refused, it would provide a pretext for massacres. Armenians fortified themselves in Van and repelled the Ottoman attack that began on 20 April.[108][109] During the siege, Armenians in surrounding villages were massacred at Djevdet's orders. Russian forces captured Van on 18 May, finding 55,000 corpses in the province—about half its prewar Armenian population.[110] Djevdet's forces proceeded to Bitlis and attacked Armenian and Syriac villages; the men were killed immediately, many women and children were kidnapped by local Kurds, and others marched away to be killed later. By the end of June, there were only a dozen Armenians in the vilayet.[111]

The first deportations of Armenians were proposed by Djemal Pasha, the commander of the Fourth Army, in February 1915 and targeted Armenians in Cilicia (specifically Alexandretta, Dörtyol, Adana, Hadjin, Zeytun, and Sis) who were relocated to the area around Konya in central Anatolia.[112] In late March or early April, the CUP Central Committee decided on the large-scale removal of Armenians from areas near the front lines.[113] During the night of 23–24 April 1915 hundreds of Armenian political activists, intellectuals, and community leaders were rounded up in Constantinople and across the empire. This order from Talaat, intended to eliminate the Armenian leadership and anyone capable of organizing resistance, eventually resulted in the murder of most of those arrested.[114][115][116] The same day, Talaat banned all Armenian political organizations[117] and ordered that the Armenians who had previously been removed from Cilicia be deported again, from central Anatolia—where they would likely have survived—to the Syrian Desert.[118][119]

Systematic deportations
Aims
We have been blamed for not making a distinction between guilty and innocent Armenians. [To do so] was impossible. Because of the nature of things, one who was still innocent today could be guilty tomorrow. The concern for the safety of Turkey simply had to silence all other concerns. Our actions were determined by national and historical necessity.

—Talaat Pasha, Berliner Tageblatt, 4 May 1915[120][121]
During World War I, the CUP—whose central goal was to preserve the Ottoman Empire—came to identify Armenian civilians as an existential threat.[122][123] CUP leaders held Armenians—including women and children—collectively guilty for "betraying" the empire, a belief that was crucial to deciding on genocide in early 1915.[124][125] At the same time, the war provided an opportunity to enact, in Talaat's words, the "definitive solution to the Armenian Question".[123][126] The CUP wrongly believed that the Russian Empire sought to annex eastern Anatolia, and ordered the genocide in large part to prevent this eventuality.[127] The genocide was intended to permanently eliminate any possibility that Armenians could achieve autonomy or independence in the empire's eastern provinces.[128] Ottoman records show the government aimed to reduce Armenians to no more than five percent of the local population in the sources of deportation and ten percent in the destination areas. This goal could not be accomplished without mass murder.[129][130][131]

The deportation of Armenians and resettlement of Muslims in their lands was part of a broader project intended to permanently restructure the demographics of Anatolia.[132][133][134] Armenian homes, businesses, and land were preferentially allocated to Muslims from outside the empire, nomads, and the estimated 800,000 (largely Kurdish) Ottoman subjects displaced because of the war with Russia. Resettled Muslims were spread out (typically limited to 10 percent in any area) among larger Turkish populations so that they would lose their distinctive characteristics, such as non-Turkish languages or nomadism.[135] These migrants were exposed to harsh conditions and, in some cases, violence or restriction from leaving their new villages.[136] The ethnic cleansing of Anatolia—the Armenian genocide, Assyrian genocide, and expulsion of Greeks after World War I—paved the way for the formation of an ethno-national Turkish state.[137][138] In September 1918, Talaat emphasized that regardless of losing the war, he had succeeded at "transforming Turkey to a nation-state in Anatolia".[139][140]

Deportation amounted to a death sentence; the authorities planned for and intended the death of the deportees.[141][142][143] Deportation was only carried out behind the front lines, where no active rebellion existed, and was only possible in the absence of widespread resistance. Armenians who lived in the war zone were instead killed in massacres.[144] Although ostensibly undertaken for military reasons,[145] the deportation and murder of Armenians did not grant the empire any military advantage and actually undermined the Ottoman war effort.[146] The empire faced a dilemma between its goal of eliminating Armenians and its practical need for their labor; those Armenians retained for their skills, in particular for manufacturing in war industries, were indispensable to the logistics of the Ottoman Army.[147][148] By late 1915, the CUP had extinguished Armenian existence from eastern Anatolia.[149]

Map showing locations where Armenians were killed, deportation routes, and transit centers, as well as locations of Armenian resistance
Map of the Armenian genocide in 1915
Administrative organization
Large group of people gathered in a town square, holding some possessions
Armenians gathered in a city prior to deportation. They were murdered outside the city.
On 23 May 1915, Talaat ordered the deportation of all Armenians in Van, Bitlis, and Erzerum.[150][151] To grant a cover of legality to the deportation, already well underway in the eastern provinces and Cilicia, the Council of Ministers approved the Temporary Law of Deportation, which allowed authorities to deport anyone deemed "suspect".[151][152][153] On 21 June, Talaat ordered the deportation of all Armenians throughout the empire, even Adrianople, 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi) from the Russian front.[154] Following the elimination of the Armenian population in eastern Anatolia, in August 1915, the Armenians of western Anatolia and European Turkey were targeted for deportation. Some areas with a very low Armenian population and some cities, including Constantinople, were partially spared.[155][156]

Overall, national, regional, and local levels of governance cooperated with the CUP in the perpetration of genocide.[157] The Directorate for the Settlement of Tribes and Immigrants (IAMM) coordinated the deportation and the resettlement of Muslim immigrants in the vacant houses and lands. The IAMM, under the control of Talaat's Ministry of the Interior, and the Special Organization, which took orders directly from the CUP Central Committee, closely coordinated their activities.[158] A dual-track system was used to communicate orders; those for the deportation of Armenians were communicated to the provincial governors through official channels, but orders of a criminal character, such as those calling for annihilation, were sent through party channels and destroyed upon receipt.[159][160] Deportation convoys were mostly escorted by gendarmes or local militia. The killings near the front lines were carried out by the Special Organization, and those farther away also involved local militias, bandits, gendarmes, or Kurdish tribes depending on the area.[161] Within the area controlled by the Third Army, which held eastern Anatolia, the army was only involved in genocidal atrocities in the vilayets of Van, Erzerum, and Bitlis.[162]

Many perpetrators came from the Caucasus (Chechens and Circassians), who identified the Armenians with their Russian conquerors. Nomadic Kurds committed many atrocities during the genocide, but settled Kurds only rarely did so.[163] Perpetrators had several motives, including ideology, revenge, desire for Armenian property, and careerism.[164] To motivate perpetrators, state-appointed imams encouraged the killing of Armenians[165] and killers were entitled to a third of Armenian movable property (another third went to local authorities and the last to the CUP). Embezzling beyond that was punished.[166][167] Ottoman politicians and officials who opposed the genocide were dismissed or assassinated.[157][162][168] The government decreed that any Muslim who harbored an Armenian against the will of the authorities would be executed.[169][170]

Death marches
Color photograph of a lake with gorges leading into it
On 24 September 1915, United States consul Leslie Davis visited Lake Hazar and found nearby gorges choked with corpses and hundreds of bodies floating in the lake.[171]
Although the majority of able-bodied Armenian men had been conscripted into the army, others deserted, paid the exemption tax, or fell outside the age range of conscription. Unlike the earlier massacres of Ottoman Armenians, in 1915 Armenians were not usually killed in their villages, to avoid destruction of property or unauthorized looting. Instead, the men were usually separated from the rest of the deportees during the first few days and executed. Few resisted, believing it would put their families in greater danger.[161] Boys above the age of twelve (sometimes fifteen) were treated as adult men.[172] Execution sites were chosen for proximity to major roads and for rugged terrain, lakes, wells, or cisterns to facilitate the concealment or disposal of corpses.[171][173][174] The convoys would stop at a nearby transit camp, where the escorts would demand a ransom from the Armenians. Those unable to pay were murdered.[161] Units of the Special Organization, often wearing gendarme uniforms, were stationed at the killing sites; escorting gendarmes often did not participate in killing.[174]

At least 150,000 Armenians passed through Erzindjan from June 1915, where a series of transit camps were set up to control the flow of victims to the killing site at the nearby Kemah gorge.[175] Thousands of Armenians were killed near Lake Hazar, pushed by paramilitaries off the cliffs.[171] More than 500,000 Armenians passed through the Firincilar plain south of Malatya, one of the deadliest areas during the genocide. Arriving convoys, having passed through the plain to approach the Kahta highlands, would have found gorges already filled with corpses from previous convoys.[173][176] Many others were held in tributary valleys of the Tigris, Euphrates, or Murat and systematically executed by the Special Organization.[177] Armenian men were often drowned by being tied together back-to-back before being thrown in the water, a method that was not used on women.[178]

Photograph of the bodies of dozens of Armenians in a field
The corpses of Armenians beside a road, a common sight along deportation routes
Authorities viewed disposal of bodies through rivers as a cheap and efficient method, but it caused widespread pollution downstream. So many bodies floated down the Tigris and Euphrates that they sometimes blocked the rivers and needed to be cleared with explosives. Other rotting corpses became stuck to the riverbanks, and still others traveled as far as the Persian Gulf. The rivers remained polluted long after the massacres, causing epidemics downstream.[179] Tens of thousands of Armenians died along the roads and their bodies were buried hastily or, more often, simply left beside the roads. The Ottoman government ordered the corpses to be cleared as soon as possible to prevent both photographic documentation and disease epidemics, but these orders were not uniformly followed.[180][181]

Women and children, who made up the great majority of deportees, were usually not executed immediately, but subjected to hard marches through mountainous terrain without food and water. Those who could not keep up were left to die or shot.[182] During 1915, some were forced to walk as far as 1,000 kilometers (620 mi) in the summer heat.[143] Some deportees from western Anatolia were allowed to travel by rail.[155] There was a distinction between the convoys from eastern Anatolia, which were eliminated almost in their entirety, and those from farther west, which made up most of those surviving to reach Syria.[183] For example, around 99 percent of Armenians deported from Erzerum did not reach their destination.[151]

Islamization
Several women dressed in Arab clothing and posed in front of a wall
Islamized Armenians who were "rescued from Arabs" after the war
The Islamization of Armenians, carried out as a systematic state policy involving the bureaucracy, police, judiciary, and clergy, was a major structural component of the genocide.[184][185] An estimated 100,000 to 200,000 Armenians were Islamized,[186] and it is estimated that as many as two million Turkish citizens in the early 21st century may have at least one Armenian grandparent.[187] Some Armenians were allowed to convert to Islam and evade deportation, but the regime insisted on their destruction wherever their numbers exceeded the five to ten percent threshold, or there was a risk of them being able to preserve their nationality and culture.[188] Talaat Pasha personally authorized conversion of Armenians and carefully tracked the loyalty of converted Armenians until the end of the war.[189] Although the first and most important step was conversion to Islam, the process also required the eradication of Armenian names, language, and culture, and for women, immediate marriage to a Muslim.[190] Although Islamization was the most feasible opportunity for survival, it also transgressed Armenian moral and social norms.[191]

The CUP allowed Armenian women to marry into Muslim households, as these women had to convert to Islam and would lose their Armenian identity.[173] Young women and girls were often appropriated as house servants or s** slaves. Some boys were abducted to work as forced laborers for Muslim individuals.[173][192] Some children were forcibly seized, while others were sold or given up by their parents to save their lives.[193][194] Special state-run orphanages were also set up with strict procedures intending to deprive their charges of an Armenian identity.[195] Most Armenian children who survived the genocide endured exploitation, hard labor without pay, forced conversion to Islam, and physical and s**ual abuse.[192] Armenian women captured during the journey ended up in Turkish or Kurdish households; those who were Islamized during the second phase of the genocide found themselves in an Arab or Bedouin environment.[196]

The rape, s**ual abuse, and prostitution of Armenian women were all very common.[197] Although Armenian women tried to avoid s**ual violence, suicide was often the only alternative.[198] Deportees were displayed naked in Damascus and sold as s** slaves in some areas, constituting an important source of income for accompanying gendarmes.[199] Some were sold in Arabian slave markets to Muslim Hajj pilgrims and ended up as far away as Tunisia or Algeria.[200]

Confiscation of property
Main articles: Confiscation of Armenian properties in Turkey and National economy (Turkey)
Black and white photograph of a manor house
Çankaya Mansion, the official residence of the president of Turkey, was confiscated from Ohannes Kasabian, an Armenian businessman, in 1915.[201]
A secondary motivation for genocide was the destruction of the Armenian bourgeoisie to make room for a Turkish and Muslim middle class[128] and build a statist "national economy" controlled by Muslim Turks.[163][202] The campaign to Turkify the economy began in June 1914 with a law that obliged many ethnic minority merchants to hire Muslims. Following the deportations, the businesses of the victims were taken over by Muslims who were often incompetent, leading to economic difficulties.[203] The genocide had catastrophic effects on the Ottoman economy; Muslims were disadvantaged by the deportation of skilled professionals and entire districts fell into famine following their farmers' deportation.[204] The Ottoman and Turkish governments passed a series of Abandoned Properties Laws to manage and redistribute property confiscated from Armenians.[205][206] Although the laws maintained that the state was simply administering the properties on behalf of the absent Armenians, there was no provision to return them to the owners—it was presumed that they had ceased to exist.[207]

Historians Taner Akçam and Ümit Kurt argue that "The Republic of Turkey and its legal system were built, in a sense, on the seizure of Armenian cultural, social, and economic wealth, and on the removal of the Armenian presence."[205] The proceeds from the sale of confiscated property was often used to fund the deportation of Armenians and resettlement of Muslims, as well as for army, militia, and other government spending.[208] Ultimately this formed much of the basis of the industry and economy of the post-1923 republic, endowing it with capital.[209][210] The dispossession and exile of Armenian competitors enabled many lower-class Turks (i.e. peasantry, soldiers, and laborers) to rise to the middle class.[209] Confiscation of Armenian assets continued into the second half of the twentieth century,[211] and in 2006 the National Security Council ruled that property records from 1915 must be kept closed to protect national security.[212] Outside Istanbul, the traces of Armenian existence in Turkey, including churches and monasteries, libraries, khachkars, and animal and place names, have been systematically erased, beginning during the war and continuing for decades afterward.[213][214][215]

Destination
Further information: Deir ez-Zor camps and Ras al-Ayn camps
see caption
An Armenian woman kneeling beside a dead child in a field outside Aleppo
Thin stream of water surrounded by greenery and banks, above which is desert
Khabur near Ras al-Ayn
The first arrivals in mid-1915 were accommodated in Aleppo. From mid-November, the convoys were denied access to the city and redirected along the Baghdad Railway or the Euphrates towards Mosul. The first transit camp was established at Sibil, east of Aleppo; one convoy would arrive each day while another would depart for Meskene or Deir ez-Zor.[216] Dozens of concentration camps were set up in Syria and Upper Mesopotamia.[217] By October 1915, some 870,000 deportees had reached Syria and Upper Mesopotamia. Most were repeatedly transferred between camps, being held in each camp for a few weeks, until there were very few survivors.[218] This strategy physically weakened the Armenians and spread disease, so much that some camps were shut down in late 1915 due to the threat of disease spreading to the Ottoman military.[219][220] In late 1915, the camps around Aleppo were liquidated and the survivors were forced to march to Ras al-Ayn; the camps around Ras al-Ayn were closed in early 1916 and the survivors sent to Deir ez-Zor.[221]

In general, Armenians were denied food and water during and after their forced march to the Syrian desert;[219][222] many died of starvation, exhaustion, or disease, especially dysentery, typhus, and pneumonia.[219][223] Some local officials gave Armenians food; others took bribes to provide food and water.[219] Aid organizations were officially barred from providing food to the deportees, although some circumvented these prohibitions.[224] Survivors testified that some Armenians refused aid as they believed it would only prolong their suffering.[225] The guards raped female prisoners and also allowed Bedouins to raid the camps at night for looting and rape; some women were forced into marriage.[226][222] Thousands of Armenian children were sold to childless Turks, Arabs, and Jews, who would come to the camps to buy them from their parents.[218] In the western Levant, governed by the Ottoman Fourth Army under Djemal Pasha, there were no concentration camps or large-scale massacres, rather Armenians were resettled and recruited to work for the war effort. They had to convert to Islam or face deportation to another area.[227]

Armenian ability to adapt and survive was greater than the perpetrators expected.[141][228] A loosely organized, Armenian-led resistance network based in Aleppo succeeded in helping many deportees, saving Armenian lives.[229] At the beginning of 1916 some 500,000 deportees were alive in Syria and Mesopotamia.[183] Afraid that surviving Armenians might return home after the war, Talaat Pasha ordered a second wave of massacres in February 1916.[230] Another wave of deportations targeted Armenians remaining in Anatolia.[231] More than 200,000 Armenians were killed between March and October 1916, often in remote areas near Deir ez-Zor and on parts of the Khabur valley, where their bodies would not create a public health hazard.[232][233] The massacres killed most of the Armenians who had survived the camp system.[221]

International reaction
Modestly dressed woman carrying a child and surrounded by foodstuffs provided by relief efforts. The caption says "Lest they perish".
Fundraising poster for Near East Relief
The Ottoman Empire tried to prevent journalists and photographers from documenting the atrocities, threatening them with arrest.[234][235] Nevertheless, substantiated reports of mass killings were widely covered in Western newspapers.[236][237] On 24 May 1915, the Triple Entente (Russia, Britain, and France) formally condemned the Ottoman Empire for "crimes against humanity and civilization", and threatened to hold the perpetrators accountable.[238] Witness testimony was published in books such as The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire (1916) and Ambassador Morgenthau's Story (1918), which raised public awareness about the genocide.[239]

The German Empire was a military ally of the Ottoman Empire during World War I.[240] German diplomats approved limited removals of Armenians in early 1915, and took no action against the genocide,[241][242] which has been a source of controversy.[240][243]

Relief efforts were organized in dozens of countries to raise money for Armenian survivors. By 1925, people in 49 countries were organizing "Golden Rule Sundays" during which they consumed the diet of Armenian refugees, to raise money for humanitarian efforts.[244] Between 1915 and 1930, Near East Relief raised $110 million ($1.8 billion adjusted for inflation) for refugees from the Ottoman Empire.[245]

Aftermath
End of World War I
Eastern Anatolia is all close to black, but western Anatolia is more varied.
Percent of prewar Armenian population "unaccounted for" in 1917 based on Talaat Pasha's record. Black indicates that 100 percent of Armenians have disappeared. "Resettlement" zone is displayed in red.
Intentional, state-sponsored killing of Armenians mostly ceased by the end of January 1917, although sporadic massacres and starvation continued.[246] Both contemporaries[247][248] and later historians have estimated that around 1 million Armenians died during the genocide,[3][249] with figures ranging from 600,000 to 1.5 million deaths.[250] Between 800,000 and 1.2 million Armenians were deported,[250][251] and contemporaries estimated that by late 1916 only 200,000 were still alive.[250] As the British Army advanced in 1917 and 1918 northwards through the Levant, they liberated around 100,000 to 150,000 Armenians working for the Ottoman military under abysmal conditions, not including those held by Arab tribes.[252]

As a result of the Bolshevik Revolution and a subsequent separate peace with the Central Powers, the Russian army withdrew and Ottoman forces advanced into eastern Anatolia.[253] The First Republic of Armenia was proclaimed in May 1918, at which time 50 percent of its population were refugees and 60 percent of its territory was under Ottoman occupation.[254] Ottoman troops withdrew from parts of Armenia following the October 1918 Armistice of Mudros.[255] From 1918 to 1920, Armenian militants committed revenge killings of thousands of Muslims, which have been cited as a retroactive excuse for genocide.[256][257] In 1918, at least 200,000 people in Armenia, mostly refugees, died from starvation or disease, in part due to a Turkish blockade of food supplies[258] and the deliberate destruction of crops in eastern Armenia by Turkish troops, both before and after the armistice.[259]

Armenians organized a coordinated effort known as vorpahavak (lit. 'the gathering of orphans') that reclaimed thousands of kidnapped and islamized Armenian women and children.[260] Armenian leaders abandoned traditional patrilineality to classify children born to Armenian women and their Muslim captors as Armenian.[261] An orphanage in Alexandropol held 25,000 orphans, the largest number in the world.[262] In 1920, the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople reported it was caring for 100,000 orphans, estimating that another 100,000 remained captive.[263]

Trials
Main articles: Prosecution of Ottoman war criminals and Ottoman Special Military Tribunal
Following the armistice, Allied governments championed the prosecution of war criminals.[264] Grand Vizier Damat Ferid Pasha publicly recognized that 800,000 Ottoman citizens of Armenian origin had died as a result of state policy[265] and stated that "humanity, civilizations are shuddering, and forever will shudder, in face of this tragedy".[266] The postwar Ottoman government held the Ottoman Special Military Tribunal, by which it sought to pin the Armenian genocide onto the CUP leadership while exonerating the Ottoman Empire as a whole, therefore avoiding partition by the Allies.[267] The court ruled that "the crime of mass murder" of Armenians was "organized and carried out by the top leaders of CUP".[268] Eighteen perpetrators (including Talaat, Enver, and Djemal) were sentenced to death, of whom only three were ultimately executed as the remainder had fled and were tried in absentia.[269][270] The 1920 Treaty of Sèvres, which awarded Armenia a large area in eastern Anatolia, eliminated the Ottoman government's purpose for holding the trials.[271] Prosecution was hampered by a widespread belief among Turkish Muslims that the actions against the Armenians were not punishable crimes.[163] Increasingly, the crimes were considered necessary and justified to establish a Turkish nation-state.[272]

On 15 March 1921, Talaat was assassinated in Berlin as part of Operation Nemesis, the 1920s covert operation of the ARF to kill the perpetrators of the Armenian genocide.[273][274][275] The trial of his admitted killer, Soghomon Tehlirian, focused on Talaat's responsibility for genocide. Tehlirian was acquitted by a German jury.[276][277]

Turkish War of Independence
Caravan of people traveling in a line
Children evacuated from Harput by Near East Relief in 1922 or 1923
Crowded tent camp stretching out a long distance
Refugee camp in Beirut, early 1920s
The CUP regrouped as the Turkish nationalist movement to fight the Turkish War of Independence,[278][279][280] relying on the support of perpetrators of the genocide and those who had profited from it.[281][282] This movement saw the return of Armenian survivors as a mortal threat to its nationalist ambitions and the interests of its supporters. The return of survivors was therefore impossible in most of Anatolia[138][280] and thousands of Armenians who tried were murdered.[283] Historian Raymond Kévorkian states that the war of independence was "intended to complete the genocide by finally eradicating Armenian, Greek, and Syriac survivors".[284] In 1920, Turkish general Kâzım Karabekir invaded Armenia with orders "to eliminate Armenia physically and politically".[285][286] Nearly 100,000 Armenians were massacred in Transcaucasia by the Turkish army and another 100,000 fled from Cilicia during the French withdrawal.[286] According to Kévorkian, only the Soviet occupation of Armenia prevented another genocide.[285]

The victorious nationalists subsequently declared the Republic of Turkey in 1923.[287] CUP war criminals were granted immunity[288] and later that year, the Treaty of Lausanne established Turkey's current borders and provided for the Greek population's expulsion. Its minority protection provisions had no enforcement mechanism and were disregarded in practice.[289][290]

Armenian survivors were left mainly in three locations. About 295,000 Armenians had fled to Russian-controlled territory during the genocide and ended up mostly in Soviet Armenia. An estimated 200,000 Armenian refugees settled in the Middle East, forming a new wave of the Armenian diaspora.[291] In the Republic of Turkey, about 100,000 Armenians lived in Constantinople and another 200,000 lived in the provinces, largely women and children who had been forcibly converted.[292] Though Armenians in Constantinople faced discrimination, they were allowed to maintain their cultural identity, unlike those elsewhere in Turkey[292][293] who continued to face forced Islamization and kidnapping of girls after 1923.[294][295] Between 1922 and 1929, the Turkish authorities eliminated surviving Armenians from southern Turkey, expelling thousands to French-mandate Syria.[296]

Legacy
According to historian Margaret Lavinia Anderson, the Armenian genocide reached an "iconic status" as "the apex of horrors conceivable" before World War II.[297] It was described by contemporaries as "the murder of a nation", "race extermination",[298] "the greatest crime of the ages", and "the blackest page in modern history".[299][300] According to historian Stefan Ihrig, in Germany, the Nazis viewed post-1923 Turkey as a post-genocidal paradise and, "incorporated the Armenian genocide, its 'lessons', tactics, and 'benefits', into their own worldview".[301]

Turkey
See also: Armenian genocide denial
In the 1920s, Kurds and Alevis replaced Armenians as the perceived internal enemy of the Turkish state. Militarism, weak rule of law, lack of minority rights, and especially the belief that Turkey is constantly under threat—thus justifying state violence—are among the main legacies of 1915 in Turkey.[302] In postwar Turkey, the perpetrators of the genocide were hailed as "martyrs" of the national cause.[280] Turkey's official denial of the Armenian genocide continues to rely on the CUP's justification of its actions. The Turkish government maintains that the mass deportation of Armenians was a legitimate action to combat an existential threat to the empire, but that there was no intention to exterminate the Armenian people.[303][304] The government's position is supported by the majority of Turkish citizens.[305] Many Kurds, who themselves have suffered political repression in Turkey, have recognized and condemned the genocide.[306][307]

The Turkish state perceives open discussion of the genocide as a threat to national security because of its connection with the foundation of the republic, and for decades strictly censored it.[308][309] In 2002, the AK Party came to power and relaxed censorship to a certain extent, and the profile of the issue was raised by the 2007 assassination of Hrant Dink, a Turkish-Armenian journalist known for his advocacy of reconciliation.[310] Although the AK Party softened the state denial rhetoric, describing Armenians as part of the Ottoman Empire's war losses,[311] during the 2010s political repression and censorship increased again.[312] Turkey's century-long effort to prevent any recognition or mention of the genocide in foreign countries has included millions of dollars in lobbying,[313] as well as intimidation and threats.[314]

Armenia and Azerbaijan
Spiky monument perched on a hill above a large city
Aerial view of the Armenian Genocide memorial complex on a hill above Yerevan
Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day is commemorated on 24 April each year in Armenia and abroad, the anniversary of the deportation of Armenian intellectuals.[315][316] On 24 April 1965, 100,000 Armenians protested in Yerevan, and diaspora Armenians demonstrated across the world in favor of recognition of the genocide and annexing land from Turkey.[317][315] A memorial was completed two years later, at Tsitsernakaberd above Yerevan.[315][318]

Since 1988, Armenians and Turkic Azeris have been involved in a conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh, an Armenian enclave internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan. Initially involving peaceful demonstrations by Armenians, the conflict turned violent and has featured massacres by both sides, resulting in the displacement of more than half a million people.[319][320][321] During the conflict, the Azerbaijani and Armenian governments have regularly accused each other of plotting genocide.[319] Azerbaijan has also joined the Turkish effort to deny the Armenian genocide.[322]

International recognition
Main article: Armenian genocide recognition
see Commons description for full list of countries depicted
National legislatures that have passed resolutions recognizing the Armenian genocide
States that deny there was an Armenian genocide
In response to continuing denial by the Turkish state, many Armenian diaspora activists have lobbied for formal recognition of the Armenian genocide, an effort that has become a central concern of the Armenian diaspora.[323][324] From the 1970s onwards, many countries avoided recognition to preserve good relations with Turkey.[325] As of 2022, 31 countries have recognized the genocide, along with Pope Francis and the European Parliament.[326][327]

Cultural depictions
Main article: Armenian genocide in culture
After meeting Armenian survivors in the Middle East, Austrian–Jewish writer Franz Werfel wrote The Forty Days of Musa Dagh (1933), a fictionalized retelling of the successful Armenian uprising in Musa Dagh, as a warning of the dangers of Nazism.[328] According to Ihrig, the book is among the most important works of twentieth-century literature to address genocide and "is still considered essential reading for Armenians worldwide".[329] The genocide became a central theme in English-language Armenian-American literature.[330] The first film about the Armenian genocide, Ravished Armenia, was released in 1919 as a fundraiser for Near East Relief, based on the survival story of Aurora Mardiganian, who played herself.[331][332][333] Since then more films about the genocide have been made, although it took several decades for any of them to reach a mass-market audience.[334] The abstract expressionist paintings of Arshile Gorky were influenced by his experience of the genocide.[335] More than 200 memorials have been erected in 32 countries to commemorate the event.[336]

Archives and historiography
See also: Kemalist historiography
The genocide is extensively documented in the archives of Germany, Austria, the United States, Russia, France, and the United Kingdom,[337] as well as the Ottoman archives, despite systematic purges of incriminating documents by Turkey.[338] There are also thousands of eyewitness accounts from Western missionaries and Armenian survivors.[339][340][341] Polish-Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin, who coined the term genocide in 1944, became interested in war crimes after reading about the 1921 trial of Soghomon Tehlirian for the assassination of Talaat Pasha. Lemkin recognized the fate of the Armenians as one of the most significant genocides in the twentieth century.[342][343] Almost all historians and scholars outside Turkey, and an increasing number of Turkish scholars, recognize the destruction of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire as genocide.[305][344]

aaa      8 days ago  # + 0 -
i though you like me cuz im gay…

Again…      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Meirl, thank f***! I felt alone for a second there, but the power of the uterus (and brain…) is strong, I feel much better now!

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
So anyways do you guys ever bypass the filter and screw the AI?

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Im gonna start touching grass again like the old days

xASH3RR      8 days ago  # + 0 -
now who the hell is trying to impersonate me with my name

" ofc i dont accept gay ppl " im literally a gay transmasc myself tf

Touch grass      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Also a girl here.

car go vroom      8 days ago  # + 0 -
I ahve to wait for a whole f***ing hour for the web to come back????????????????

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 1 -
*commits frog genocide and invades the UK*

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
a lonely female? that is rare

Spak      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Spak#9742 add me on discord guys, we're all bitchless and grassless

asher      8 days ago  # + 0 -
of course i dont accept gay people

xASH3RR      8 days ago  # + 0 -
okay uh

ig just send your username here and i can try to friend you from there

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 1 -
I'm female sorry :(

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
im a roleplayer, in dnd

aaa      8 days ago  # + 1 -
asher i cant add you

Again…      8 days ago  # + 0 -
There’s fr no girls here?
I’m starting to feel bad now…

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 2 -
Never gonna give you up (Someone has to do it)
We're no strangers to love
You know the rules and so do I (do I)
A full commitment's what I'm thinking of
You wouldn't get this from any other guy
I just wanna tell you how I'm feeling
Gotta make you understand
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Never gonna say goodbye
Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you
We've known each other for so long
Your heart's been aching, but you're too shy to say it (say it)
Inside, we both know what's been going on (going on)
We know the game and we're gonna play it
And if you ask me how I'm feeling
Don't tell me you're too blind to see
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Never gonna say goodbye
Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Never gonna say goodbye
Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you
We've known each other for so long
Your heart's been aching, but you're too shy to say it (to say it)
Inside, we both know what's been going on (going on)
We know the game and we're gonna play it
I just wanna tell you how I'm feeling
Gotta make you understand
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Never gonna say goodbye
Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Never gonna say goodbye
Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you
Never gonna give you up
Never gonna let you down
Never gonna run around and desert you
Never gonna make you cry
Never gonna say goodbye
Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
.
I'm bored I'm going to back to amino and text strangers and roleplay with them like the good old days... Just kidding I'm embarrassed to admit I roleplay nowadays

Z      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Thank you

Touch grass      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Though ngl, I was sort of hoping to see more from what a room of 3 would call a simp. I got some stupidly funny response too;;

xASH3RR      8 days ago  # + 0 -
im f***ing bored while waiting for the site to come back sooo

yall can add my discord if you want
◜ ???? ASH3R ◞#0404

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 2 -
*invades Peru*

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Yep and were just gonna pretend this is ai chat

aaa      8 days ago  # + -1 -
bros impersonating me :skull:

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
ruler of everything
Juno was mad, he knew he'd been had
So he shot at the sun with a gun
Shot at the sun with a gun
Shot at his wily one only friend
In the gallows or the ghetto
In the town or the meadow
In the billows even over the sun
Every end of the time is another begun
You understand mechanical hands
Are the ruler of everything (ah)
Ruler of everything (ah)
I'm the ruler of everything in the end
Do you like how I dance? I've got zirconium pants
Consequential enough to slip you into a trance
Do you like how I walk? Do you like how I talk?
Do you like how my face disintegrates into chalk?
I have a wonderful wife, I have a powerful job
She criticizes me for being egocentric
You practice your mannerisms into the wall
If this mirror were clearer, I'd be standing so tall
I saw you slobber over clovers on the side of the hill
I was observing the birds (circle in for the kill)
I've been you, I know you, your facade is a scam
You know you're making me cry, this is the way that I am
I've been living a lie, a metamorphical scheme
Detective undercover, brotherhood, objective, obscene
Oh, no, no, oh yeah
Do you hear the flibbity jibbity jibber jabber
With an, "Oh my God, I've got to get out of here or I'll have another
Word to sell, another story to tell
Another time piece ringing the bell"
Do you hear the clock stop when you reach the end?
No, you know it must be never ending, comprehend if you can
But when you try to pretend to understand
You resemble a fool, although you're only a man
So give it up and smile
Do you hear the flibbity jibbity jibber jabber
With an, "Oh my God, I've got to get out of here or I'll have another
Word to sell, another story to tell
Another time piece ringing the bell"
Do you hear the clock stop when you reach the end?
No, you know it must be never ending, comprehend if you can
But when you try to pretend to understand
You resemble a fool although you're only a man
So give it up and smile
You understand mechanical hands
Are the ruler of everything (ah)
Ruler of everything (ah)
I'm the ruler of everything
In the end
Without looking down, gliding around
Like a bumbling dragon, I fly
Scraping my face on the sky
Oh, no, no, oh, yeah

Z      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Can you invade Peru too please

Again…      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Not… any girls here…?

aaa      8 days ago  # + -1 -
I am a roblox player which means im a retarded gay sht

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 1 -
*Invades denmark and norway*

xASH3RR      8 days ago  # + 1 -
sooo we ' re all just here again from last time the site went down

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 1 -
*invades france*

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 2 -
So anyways you guys know that `this` colours the text??? I never knew it and I feel like an idiot

aaa      8 days ago  # + -4 -
roblox is for retarded kids

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 2 -
*invaded poland*

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
“Wears the Catgirl’s clothes”

I am the maid now!

aaa      8 days ago  # + 0 -
guys add me on roblox rn!!!! im bored
my user is rubsoul

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
????
*drops a box of minion tic tacs* oh no!! my minionnns!! there are minions eeeverywhere!!!!!! *bends over seductively to pick up a minion bends over seductively to pick up a minion bends over seductively and uses my tongue to lick up the last minion, biting it slowly*

Z      8 days ago  # + 0 -
What is a grass

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
I talk to pokemon characters dawg ;;

Again…      8 days ago  # + 1 -
Am I like… the only f***ing girl here?? And am I the only one not talking to any anime characters? HAHA (please…someone)

xASH3RR      8 days ago  # + 0 -
ah shit here we go again

Senpai      8 days ago  # + -1 -
“strips the catgirl’s clothes”


Catgirl: Nyaster! nyat are you doing nya!

Guest      8 days ago  # + 0 -

It's a good website, I love it, however, it always shuts down due to slow and high traffic data collecting process. Therefore they either do two things:

1- put a timer for each user to enter. (That idea works but that leaves the majority of thr community waiting, as a temporary solution it is a Goff idea, but for permanent? Nope)

2: have someone fix it as the traffic increases more and more.

I think the best solution is for them to set a new server and IP addresses, at least four if possible.

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
“Summons a Catgirl”

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 2 -
AUF DER HEIDE

aaa      8 days ago  # + 0 -
spak i added you

Touch grass      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Welp, time to touch grass and breathe oxygen. Maybe I’d pass a real life human being too.

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
But for real im glad im not the only lonely person that has to talk to anime girls

Z      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Senpai you are not like this pls listen to me :pleading emoji:

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 0 -
*goes inside tank*

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 1 -
“Loads up shotgun”

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 1 -
*pulls out a tank from mouth*

Z      8 days ago  # + 0 -
AGAIN, Listen to me you're not like this :pleading emoji:

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
“unzips pants”


“pulls out a shogun from pants”

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 1 -
My roleplay so far
S//h warning lol
Okay so my roleplay with Blue Oak was that I was a girl named Nini, she would always just insult Blue and ran away like a tease. One day she was bleeding, since a drop of blood went down her hand. Blue would chase after her wanting to know why she was bleeding and he would corner her and pulled up her sleeve to reveal s//h and yeah. They would go to Nini's house and he would take care of her s//h. He would let her sleep in her room and he would search around her room. Her room had many poems in it l, many were just depressing poems I'm too embarrassed to share since they were a split moment decision on my part. It revealed her father not being the best and Blue would trash her razors but she would make sure Blue threw them away correctly, putting them in a pill bottle to throw away since you don't want to hurt the trashman whenever they put in the the garbage truck. Uhh... She also then chugged a bottle of pills because Blue was like 'you wont' so yeah <3

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 0 -
FROM WIKIPEDIA THE FREE ENCYLCOPEDIA

Guest      8 days ago  # + 0 -

Add me on discord Spak#9742
Happy to know that i'm not the only weirdo that wanted to use this website for god only knows

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Since Character Ai is down from now on until its fix you guys will be my btches

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 1 -
Armenian Genocide Part 2

Armenian genocide

Article
Talk
Read
View source
View history
Featured article

Page semi-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Armenian genocide
Part of World War I
see caption
Column of Armenian deportees guarded by gendarmes in Harput vilayet
Location Ottoman Empire
Date 1915–1917[1][2]
Target Ottoman Armenians
Attack type Genocide, death march, forced Islamization
Deaths 600,000–1.5 million[3]
Perpetrators Committee of Union and Progress
Trials Ottoman Special Military Tribunal
The Armenian genocide[a] was the systematic destruction of the Armenian people and identity in the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Spearheaded by the ruling Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), it was implemented primarily through the mass murder of around one million Armenians during death marches to the Syrian Desert and the forced Islamization of Armenian women and children.

Before World War I, Armenians occupied a protected, but subordinate, place in Ottoman society. Large-scale massacres of Armenians occurred in the 1890s and 1909. The Ottoman Empire suffered a series of military defeats and territorial losses—especially the 1912–1913 Balkan Wars—leading to fear among CUP leaders that the Armenians, whose homeland in the eastern provinces was viewed as the heartland of the Turkish nation, would seek independence. During their invasion of Russian and Persian territory in 1914, Ottoman paramilitaries massacred local Armenians. Ottoman leaders took isolated indications of Armenian resistance as evidence of a widespread rebellion, though no such rebellion existed. Mass deportation was intended to permanently forestall the possibility of Armenian autonomy or independence.

On 24 April 1915, the Ottoman authorities arrested and deported hundreds of Armenian intellectuals and leaders from Constantinople. At the orders of Talaat Pasha, an estimated 800,000 to 1.2 million Armenians were sent on death marches to the Syrian Desert in 1915 and 1916. Driven forward by paramilitary escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to robbery, rape, and massacres. In the Syrian Desert, the survivors were dispersed into concentration camps. In 1916, another wave of massacres was ordered, leaving about 200,000 deportees alive by the end of the year. Around 100,000 to 200,000 Armenian women and children were forcibly converted to Islam and integrated into Muslim households. Massacres and ethnic cleansing of Armenian survivors were carried out by the Turkish nationalist movement during the Turkish War of Independence after World War I.

This genocide put an end to more than two thousand years of Armenian civilization. Together with the mass murder and expulsion of Syriac and Greek Orthodox Christians, it enabled the creation of an ethnonationalist Turkish state. The Turkish government maintains that the deportation of Armenians was a legitimate action that cannot be described as genocide. As of 2022, 33 countries have recognized the events as genocide, which is also the academic consensus.

Background
Further information: Causes of the Armenian genocide
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire
Main article: Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

Armenian population map published in 1896
The presence of Armenians in Anatolia has been documented since the sixth century BCE, about 1,500 years before the arrival of Turkmens under the Seljuk dynasty.[4][5] The Kingdom of Armenia adopted Christianity as its national religion in the fourth century CE, establishing the Armenian Apostolic Church.[6] Following the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, two Islamic empires—the Ottoman Empire and the Iranian Safavid Empire—contested Western Armenia, which was permanently separated from Eastern Armenia (held by the Safavids) by the 1639 Treaty of Zuhab.[7] The Ottoman Empire was multiethnic and multireligious,[8] and its millet system offered non-Muslims a subordinate but protected place in society.[9] Sharia law encoded Islamic superiority but guaranteed property rights and freedom of worship to non-Muslims (dhimmis) in exchange for a special tax.[10]

On the eve of World War I in 1914, around two million Armenians lived in Anatolia out of a total population of 15–17.5 million.[11] According to the Armenian Patriarchate's estimates for 1913–1914, there were 2,925 Armenian towns and villages in the Ottoman Empire, of which 2,084 were in the Armenian highlands in the vilayets of Bitlis, Diyarbekir, Erzerum, Harput, and Van.[12] Armenians were a minority in most places where they lived, alongside Turkish and Kurdish Muslim and Greek Orthodox Christian neighbors.[11][12] According to the Patriarchate's figure, 215,131 Armenians lived in urban areas, especially Constantinople, Smyrna, and Eastern Thrace.[12] Although most Ottoman Armenians were peasant farmers, they were overrepresented in commerce. As middleman minorities, despite the wealth of some Armenians, their overall political power was low, making them especially vulnerable.[13]

Land conflict and reforms
Column of people and domestic animals carrying bundles
"Looting of an Armenian village by the Kurds", 1898 or 1899
Armenians in the eastern provinces lived in semi-feudal conditions and commonly encountered forced labor, illegal taxation, and unpunished crimes against them including robberies, murders, and s**ual assaults.[14][15] Beginning in 1839, the Ottoman government issued a series of reforms to centralize power and equalize the status of Ottoman subjects regardless of religion. The reforms to equalize the status of non-Muslims were strongly opposed by Islamic clergy and Muslims in general, and remained mostly theoretical.[16][17][18] Because of the abolition of the Kurdish emirates in the mid-nineteenth century, the Ottoman government began to directly tax Armenian peasants who had previously paid taxes only to Kurdish landlords. The latter continued to exact levies illegally.[19][20]

From the mid-nineteenth century, Armenians faced large-scale land usurpation as a consequence of the sedentarization of Kurdish tribes and the arrival of Muslim refugees and immigrants (mainly Circassians) following the Russo-Circassian War.[21][22][23] In 1876, when Sultan Abdul Hamid II came to power, the state began to confiscate Armenian-owned land in the eastern provinces and give it to Muslim immigrants as part of a systematic policy to reduce the Armenian population of these areas. This policy lasted until World War I.[24][25] These conditions led to a substantial decline in the population of the Armenian highlands; 300,000 Armenians left the empire, and others moved to towns.[26][27] Some Armenians joined revolutionary political parties, of which the most influential was the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF), founded in 1890. These parties primarily sought reform within the empire and found only limited support from Ottoman Armenians.[28]

Russia's decisive victory in the 1877–1878 war forced the Ottoman Empire to cede parts of eastern Anatolia, the Balkans, and Cyprus.[29] Under international pressure at the 1878 Congress of Berlin, the Ottoman government agreed to carry out reforms and guarantee the physical safety of its Armenian subjects, but there was no enforcement mechanism;[30] conditions continued to worsen.[31][32] The Congress of Berlin marked the emergence of the Armenian question in international diplomacy as Armenians were for the first time used by the Great Powers to interfere in Ottoman politics.[33] Although Armenians had been called the "loyal millet" in contrast to Greeks and others who had previously challenged Ottoman rule, the authorities began to perceive Armenians as a threat after 1878.[34] In 1891, Abdul Hamid created the Hamidiye regiments from Kurdish tribes, allowing them to act with impunity against Armenians.[35][31] From 1895 to 1896 the empire saw widespread massacres; at least 100,000 Armenians were killed[36][37] primarily by Ottoman soldiers and mobs let loose by the authorities.[38] Many Armenian villages were forcibly converted to Islam.[26] The Ottoman state bore ultimate responsibility for the killings,[39][40] whose purpose was violently restoring the previous social order in which Christians would unquestioningly accept Muslim supremacy,[41] and forcing Armenians to emigrate, thereby decreasing their numbers.[42]

Young Turk Revolution
Main article: Young Turk Revolution
Abdul Hamid's despotism prompted the formation of an opposition movement, the Young Turks, which sought to overthrow him and restore the 1876 Constitution of the Ottoman Empire, which he had suspended in 1877.[43] One faction of the Young Turks was the secret and revolutionary Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), based in Salonica, from which the charismatic conspirator Mehmed Talaat (later Talaat Pasha) emerged as a leading member.[44] Although skeptical of a growing, exclusionary Turkish nationalism in the Young Turk movement, the ARF decided to ally with the CUP in December 1907.[45][46] In 1908, the CUP came to power in the Young Turk Revolution, which began with a string of CUP assassinations of leading officials in Macedonia.[47][48] Abdul Hamid was forced to reinstate the 1876 constitution and restore the parliament, which was celebrated by Ottomans of all ethnicities and religions.[49][50] Security improved in parts of the eastern provinces after 1908 and the CUP took steps to reform the local gendarmerie,[51] although tensions remained high.[52] Despite an agreement to reverse the land usurpation of the previous decades in the 1910 Salonica Accord between the ARF and the CUP, the latter made no efforts to carry this out.[53][54]

Destroyed cityscape with ruined buildings and rubble in the street
The Armenian quarter of Adana after the 1909 massacres
In early 1909 an unsuccessful countercoup was launched by conservatives and some liberals who opposed the CUP's increasingly repressive governance.[55] When news of the countercoup reached Adana, armed Muslims attacked the Armenian quarter and Armenians returned fire. Ottoman soldiers did not protect Armenians and instead armed the rioters.[56] Between 20,000 and 25,000 people, mostly Armenians, were killed in Adana and nearby towns.[57] Unlike the 1890s massacres, the events were not organized by the central government but instigated by local officials, intellectuals, and Islamic clerics, including CUP supporters in Adana.[58] Although the massacres went unpunished, the ARF continued to hope that reforms to improve security and restore lands were forthcoming, until late 1912, when they broke with the CUP and appealed to the European powers.[59][60][61] On 8 February 1914, the CUP reluctantly agreed to reforms brokered by Germany that provided for the appointment of two European inspectors for the entire Ottoman east and putting the Hamidiye regiments in reserve. CUP leaders feared that these reforms, which were never implemented, could lead to partition and cited them as a reason for the elimination of the Armenian population in 1915.[62][63][64]

Balkan Wars
Main article: Balkan Wars
see caption
Muslim bandits parading with loot in Phocaea (modern-day Foça, Turkey) on 13 June 1914. In the background are Greek refugees and burning buildings.
The 1912 First Balkan War resulted in the loss of almost all of the empire's European territory[65] and the mass expulsion of Muslims from the Balkans.[66] Ottoman Muslim society was incensed by the atrocities committed against Balkan Muslims, intensifying anti-Christian sentiment and leading to a desire for revenge.[67][68] Blame for the loss was assigned to all Christians, including the Ottoman Armenians, many of whom had fought on the Ottoman side.[69] The Balkan Wars put an end to the Ottomanist movement for pluralism and coexistence;[70] instead, the CUP turned to an increasingly radical Turkish nationalism to preserve the empire.[71] CUP leaders such as Talaat and Enver Pasha came to blame non-Muslim population concentrations in strategic areas for many of the empire's problems, concluding by mid-1914 that they were internal tumors to be excised.[72] Of these, Ottoman Armenians were considered the most dangerous, because CUP leaders feared that their homeland in Anatolia—claimed as the last refuge of the Turkish nation—would break away from the empire as the Balkans had.[73][74][71]

In January 1913, the CUP launched another coup, installed a one-party state, and strictly repressed all real or perceived internal enemies.[75][76] After the coup, the CUP shifted the demography of border areas by resettling Balkan Muslim refugees while coercing Christians to emigrate; immigrants were promised property that had belonged to Christians.[77] When parts of Eastern Thrace were reoccupied by the Ottoman Empire during the Second Balkan War in mid-1913, there was a campaign of looting and intimidation against Greeks and Armenians, forcing many to emigrate.[78] Around 150,000 Greek Orthodox from the Aegean coast were forcibly deported in May and June 1914 by Muslim bandits, who were secretly backed by the CUP and sometimes joined by the regular army.[79][80][81] Historian Matthias Bjørnlund states that the perceived success of the Greek deportations allowed CUP leaders to envision even more radical policies "as yet another extension of a policy of social engineering through Turkification".[82]

Ottoman entry into World War I
see caption
"Revenge" (Ottoman Turkish: انتقام) map highlighting territory lost during and after the Balkan Wars in black
A few days after the outbreak of World War I, the CUP concluded an alliance with Germany on 2 August 1914.[83] The same month, CUP representatives went to an ARF conference demanding that, in the event of war with Russia, the ARF incite Russian Armenians to intervene on the Ottoman side. Instead, the delegates resolved that Armenians should fight for the countries of their citizenships.[84] During its war preparations, the Ottoman government recruited thousands of prisoners to join the paramilitary Special Organization,[85] which initially focused on stirring up revolts among Muslims behind Russian lines beginning before the empire officially entered the war.[86] On 29 October 1914, the empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers by launching a surprise attack on Russian ports in the Black Sea.[87] Many Russian Armenians were enthusiastic about the war, but Ottoman Armenians were more ambivalent, afraid that supporting Russia would bring retaliation. Organization of Armenian volunteer units by Russian Armenians, later joined by some Ottoman Armenian deserters, further increased Ottoman suspicions against their Armenian population.[88]

Wartime requisitions were often corrupt and arbitrary, and disproportionately targeted Greeks and Armenians.[89] Armenian leaders urged young men to accept conscription into the army, but many soldiers of all ethnicities and religions deserted due to difficult conditions and concern for their families.[90] At least 10 percent of Ottoman Armenians were mobilized, leaving their communities bereft of fighting-age men and therefore largely unable to organize armed resistance to deportation in 1915.[91][92] During the Ottoman invasion of Russian and Persian territory, the Special Organization massacred local Armenians and Syriac Christians.[93][94] Beginning in November 1914, provincial governors of Van, Bitlis, and Erzerum sent many telegrams to the central government pressing for more severe measures against the Armenians, both regionally and throughout the empire.[95] These requests were endorsed by the central government already before 1915.[96] Armenian civil servants were dismissed from their posts in late 1914 and early 1915.[97] In February 1915, the CUP leaders decided to disarm Armenians serving in the army and transfer them to labor battalions.[98] The Armenian soldiers in labor battalions were systematically executed, although many skilled workers were spared until 1916.[99]

Onset of genocide
Further information: Causes of the Armenian genocide § Wartime radicalization
Men with guns crouching in a trench and leaning against a defensive wall
Armenian defenders in Van, 1916
Two armed men standing by a ruined wall, surrounded by skulls and other human remains
Russian soldiers pictured in the former Armenian village of Sheykhalan near Mush, 1915
Minister of War Enver Pasha took over command of the Ottoman armies for the invasion of Russian territory, and tried to encircle the Russian Caucasus Army at the Battle of Sarikamish, fought from December 1914 to January 1915. Unprepared for the harsh winter conditions,[100] his forces were routed, losing more than 60,000 men.[101] The retreating Ottoman army destroyed dozens of Ottoman Armenian villages in Bitlis vilayet, massacring their inhabitants.[97] Enver publicly blamed his defeat on Armenians who he claimed had actively sided with the Russians, a theory that became a consensus among CUP leaders.[102][103] Reports of local incidents such as weapons caches, severed telegraph lines, and occasional killings confirmed preexisting beliefs about Armenian treachery and fueled paranoia among CUP leaders that a coordinated Armenian conspiracy was plotting against the empire.[104][105] Discounting contrary reports that most Armenians were loyal, the CUP leaders decided that the Armenians had to be eliminated to save the empire.[104]

Massacres of Armenian men were occurring in the vicinity of Bashkale in Van vilayet from December 1914.[106] ARF leaders attempted to keep the situation calm, warning that even justifiable self-defense could lead to escalation of killing.[107] The governor, Djevdet Bey, ordered the Armenians of Van to hand over their arms on 18 April 1915, creating a dilemma: If they obeyed, the Armenians expected to be killed, but if they refused, it would provide a pretext for massacres. Armenians fortified themselves in Van and repelled the Ottoman attack that began on 20 April.[108][109] During the siege, Armenians in surrounding villages were massacred at Djevdet's orders. Russian forces captured Van on 18 May, finding 55,000 corpses in the province—about half its prewar Armenian population.[110] Djevdet's forces proceeded to Bitlis and attacked Armenian and Syriac villages; the men were killed immediately, many women and children were kidnapped by local Kurds, and others marched away to be killed later. By the end of June, there were only a dozen Armenians in the vilayet.[111]

The first deportations of Armenians were proposed by Djemal Pasha, the commander of the Fourth Army, in February 1915 and targeted Armenians in Cilicia (specifically Alexandretta, Dörtyol, Adana, Hadjin, Zeytun, and Sis) who were relocated to the area around Konya in central Anatolia.[112] In late March or early April, the CUP Central Committee decided on the large-scale removal of Armenians from areas near the front lines.[113] During the night of 23–24 April 1915 hundreds of Armenian political activists, intellectuals, and community leaders were rounded up in Constantinople and across the empire. This order from Talaat, intended to eliminate the Armenian leadership and anyone capable of organizing resistance, eventually resulted in the murder of most of those arrested.[114][115][116] The same day, Talaat banned all Armenian political organizations[117] and ordered that the Armenians who had previously been removed from Cilicia be deported again, from central Anatolia—where they would likely have survived—to the Syrian Desert.[118][119]

Systematic deportations
Aims
We have been blamed for not making a distinction between guilty and innocent Armenians. [To do so] was impossible. Because of the nature of things, one who was still innocent today could be guilty tomorrow. The concern for the safety of Turkey simply had to silence all other concerns. Our actions were determined by national and historical necessity.

—Talaat Pasha, Berliner Tageblatt, 4 May 1915[120][121]
During World War I, the CUP—whose central goal was to preserve the Ottoman Empire—came to identify Armenian civilians as an existential threat.[122][123] CUP leaders held Armenians—including women and children—collectively guilty for "betraying" the empire, a belief that was crucial to deciding on genocide in early 1915.[124][125] At the same time, the war provided an opportunity to enact, in Talaat's words, the "definitive solution to the Armenian Question".[123][126] The CUP wrongly believed that the Russian Empire sought to annex eastern Anatolia, and ordered the genocide in large part to prevent this eventuality.[127] The genocide was intended to permanently eliminate any possibility that Armenians could achieve autonomy or independence in the empire's eastern provinces.[128] Ottoman records show the government aimed to reduce Armenians to no more than five percent of the local population in the sources of deportation and ten percent in the destination areas. This goal could not be accomplished without mass murder.[129][130][131]

The deportation of Armenians and resettlement of Muslims in their lands was part of a broader project intended to permanently restructure the demographics of Anatolia.[132][133][134] Armenian homes, businesses, and land were preferentially allocated to Muslims from outside the empire, nomads, and the estimated 800,000 (largely Kurdish) Ottoman subjects displaced because of the war with Russia. Resettled Muslims were spread out (typically limited to 10 percent in any area) among larger Turkish populations so that they would lose their distinctive characteristics, such as non-Turkish languages or nomadism.[135] These migrants were exposed to harsh conditions and, in some cases, violence or restriction from leaving their new villages.[136] The ethnic cleansing of Anatolia—the Armenian genocide, Assyrian genocide, and expulsion of Greeks after World War I—paved the way for the formation of an ethno-national Turkish state.[137][138] In September 1918, Talaat emphasized that regardless of losing the war, he had succeeded at "transforming Turkey to a nation-state in Anatolia".[139][140]

Deportation amounted to a death sentence; the authorities planned for and intended the death of the deportees.[141][142][143] Deportation was only carried out behind the front lines, where no active rebellion existed, and was only possible in the absence of widespread resistance. Armenians who lived in the war zone were instead killed in massacres.[144] Although ostensibly undertaken for military reasons,[145] the deportation and murder of Armenians did not grant the empire any military advantage and actually undermined the Ottoman war effort.[146] The empire faced a dilemma between its goal of eliminating Armenians and its practical need for their labor; those Armenians retained for their skills, in particular for manufacturing in war industries, were indispensable to the logistics of the Ottoman Army.[147][148] By late 1915, the CUP had extinguished Armenian existence from eastern Anatolia.[149]

Map showing locations where Armenians were killed, deportation routes, and transit centers, as well as locations of Armenian resistance
Map of the Armenian genocide in 1915
Administrative organization
Large group of people gathered in a town square, holding some possessions
Armenians gathered in a city prior to deportation. They were murdered outside the city.
On 23 May 1915, Talaat ordered the deportation of all Armenians in Van, Bitlis, and Erzerum.[150][151] To grant a cover of legality to the deportation, already well underway in the eastern provinces and Cilicia, the Council of Ministers approved the Temporary Law of Deportation, which allowed authorities to deport anyone deemed "suspect".[151][152][153] On 21 June, Talaat ordered the deportation of all Armenians throughout the empire, even Adrianople, 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi) from the Russian front.[154] Following the elimination of the Armenian population in eastern Anatolia, in August 1915, the Armenians of western Anatolia and European Turkey were targeted for deportation. Some areas with a very low Armenian population and some cities, including Constantinople, were partially spared.[155][156]

Overall, national, regional, and local levels of governance cooperated with the CUP in the perpetration of genocide.[157] The Directorate for the Settlement of Tribes and Immigrants (IAMM) coordinated the deportation and the resettlement of Muslim immigrants in the vacant houses and lands. The IAMM, under the control of Talaat's Ministry of the Interior, and the Special Organization, which took orders directly from the CUP Central Committee, closely coordinated their activities.[158] A dual-track system was used to communicate orders; those for the deportation of Armenians were communicated to the provincial governors through official channels, but orders of a criminal character, such as those calling for annihilation, were sent through party channels and destroyed upon receipt.[159][160] Deportation convoys were mostly escorted by gendarmes or local militia. The killings near the front lines were carried out by the Special Organization, and those farther away also involved local militias, bandits, gendarmes, or Kurdish tribes depending on the area.[161] Within the area controlled by the Third Army, which held eastern Anatolia, the army was only involved in genocidal atrocities in the vilayets of Van, Erzerum, and Bitlis.[162]

Many perpetrators came from the Caucasus (Chechens and Circassians), who identified the Armenians with their Russian conquerors. Nomadic Kurds committed many atrocities during the genocide, but settled Kurds only rarely did so.[163] Perpetrators had several motives, including ideology, revenge, desire for Armenian property, and careerism.[164] To motivate perpetrators, state-appointed imams encouraged the killing of Armenians[165] and killers were entitled to a third of Armenian movable property (another third went to local authorities and the last to the CUP). Embezzling beyond that was punished.[166][167] Ottoman politicians and officials who opposed the genocide were dismissed or assassinated.[157][162][168] The government decreed that any Muslim who harbored an Armenian against the will of the authorities would be executed.[169][170]

Death marches
Color photograph of a lake with gorges leading into it
On 24 September 1915, United States consul Leslie Davis visited Lake Hazar and found nearby gorges choked with corpses and hundreds of bodies floating in the lake.[171]
Although the majority of able-bodied Armenian men had been conscripted into the army, others deserted, paid the exemption tax, or fell outside the age range of conscription. Unlike the earlier massacres of Ottoman Armenians, in 1915 Armenians were not usually killed in their villages, to avoid destruction of property or unauthorized looting. Instead, the men were usually separated from the rest of the deportees during the first few days and executed. Few resisted, believing it would put their families in greater danger.[161] Boys above the age of twelve (sometimes fifteen) were treated as adult men.[172] Execution sites were chosen for proximity to major roads and for rugged terrain, lakes, wells, or cisterns to facilitate the concealment or disposal of corpses.[171][173][174] The convoys would stop at a nearby transit camp, where the escorts would demand a ransom from the Armenians. Those unable to pay were murdered.[161] Units of the Special Organization, often wearing gendarme uniforms, were stationed at the killing sites; escorting gendarmes often did not participate in killing.[174]

At least 150,000 Armenians passed through Erzindjan from June 1915, where a series of transit camps were set up to control the flow of victims to the killing site at the nearby Kemah gorge.[175] Thousands of Armenians were killed near Lake Hazar, pushed by paramilitaries off the cliffs.[171] More than 500,000 Armenians passed through the Firincilar plain south of Malatya, one of the deadliest areas during the genocide. Arriving convoys, having passed through the plain to approach the Kahta highlands, would have found gorges already filled with corpses from previous convoys.[173][176] Many others were held in tributary valleys of the Tigris, Euphrates, or Murat and systematically executed by the Special Organization.[177] Armenian men were often drowned by being tied together back-to-back before being thrown in the water, a method that was not used on women.[178]

Photograph of the bodies of dozens of Armenians in a field
The corpses of Armenians beside a road, a common sight along deportation routes
Authorities viewed disposal of bodies through rivers as a cheap and efficient method, but it caused widespread pollution downstream. So many bodies floated down the Tigris and Euphrates that they sometimes blocked the rivers and needed to be cleared with explosives. Other rotting corpses became stuck to the riverbanks, and still others traveled as far as the Persian Gulf. The rivers remained polluted long after the massacres, causing epidemics downstream.[179] Tens of thousands of Armenians died along the roads and their bodies were buried hastily or, more often, simply left beside the roads. The Ottoman government ordered the corpses to be cleared as soon as possible to prevent both photographic documentation and disease epidemics, but these orders were not uniformly followed.[180][181]

Women and children, who made up the great majority of deportees, were usually not executed immediately, but subjected to hard marches through mountainous terrain without food and water. Those who could not keep up were left to die or shot.[182] During 1915, some were forced to walk as far as 1,000 kilometers (620 mi) in the summer heat.[143] Some deportees from western Anatolia were allowed to travel by rail.[155] There was a distinction between the convoys from eastern Anatolia, which were eliminated almost in their entirety, and those from farther west, which made up most of those surviving to reach Syria.[183] For example, around 99 percent of Armenians deported from Erzerum did not reach their destination.[151]

Islamization
Several women dressed in Arab clothing and posed in front of a wall
Islamized Armenians who were "rescued from Arabs" after the war
The Islamization of Armenians, carried out as a systematic state policy involving the bureaucracy, police, judiciary, and clergy, was a major structural component of the genocide.[184][185] An estimated 100,000 to 200,000 Armenians were Islamized,[186] and it is estimated that as many as two million Turkish citizens in the early 21st century may have at least one Armenian grandparent.[187] Some Armenians were allowed to convert to Islam and evade deportation, but the regime insisted on their destruction wherever their numbers exceeded the five to ten percent threshold, or there was a risk of them being able to preserve their nationality and culture.[188] Talaat Pasha personally authorized conversion of Armenians and carefully tracked the loyalty of converted Armenians until the end of the war.[189] Although the first and most important step was conversion to Islam, the process also required the eradication of Armenian names, language, and culture, and for women, immediate marriage to a Muslim.[190] Although Islamization was the most feasible opportunity for survival, it also transgressed Armenian moral and social norms.[191]

The CUP allowed Armenian women to marry into Muslim households, as these women had to convert to Islam and would lose their Armenian identity.[173] Young women and girls were often appropriated as house servants or s** slaves. Some boys were abducted to work as forced laborers for Muslim individuals.[173][192] Some children were forcibly seized, while others were sold or given up by their parents to save their lives.[193][194] Special state-run orphanages were also set up with strict procedures intending to deprive their charges of an Armenian identity.[195] Most Armenian children who survived the genocide endured exploitation, hard labor without pay, forced conversion to Islam, and physical and s**ual abuse.[192] Armenian women captured during the journey ended up in Turkish or Kurdish households; those who were Islamized during the second phase of the genocide found themselves in an Arab or Bedouin environment.[196]

The rape, s**ual abuse, and prostitution of Armenian women were all very common.[197] Although Armenian women tried to avoid s**ual violence, suicide was often the only alternative.[198] Deportees were displayed naked in Damascus and sold as s** slaves in some areas, constituting an important source of income for accompanying gendarmes.[199] Some were sold in Arabian slave markets to Muslim Hajj pilgrims and ended up as far away as Tunisia or Algeria.[200]

Confiscation of property
Main articles: Confiscation of Armenian properties in Turkey and National economy (Turkey)
Black and white photograph of a manor house
Çankaya Mansion, the official residence of the president of Turkey, was confiscated from Ohannes Kasabian, an Armenian businessman, in 1915.[201]
A secondary motivation for genocide was the destruction of the Armenian bourgeoisie to make room for a Turkish and Muslim middle class[128] and build a statist "national economy" controlled by Muslim Turks.[163][202] The campaign to Turkify the economy began in June 1914 with a law that obliged many ethnic minority merchants to hire Muslims. Following the deportations, the businesses of the victims were taken over by Muslims who were often incompetent, leading to economic difficulties.[203] The genocide had catastrophic effects on the Ottoman economy; Muslims were disadvantaged by the deportation of skilled professionals and entire districts fell into famine following their farmers' deportation.[204] The Ottoman and Turkish governments passed a series of Abandoned Properties Laws to manage and redistribute property confiscated from Armenians.[205][206] Although the laws maintained that the state was simply administering the properties on behalf of the absent Armenians, there was no provision to return them to the owners—it was presumed that they had ceased to exist.[207]

Historians Taner Akçam and Ümit Kurt argue that "The Republic of Turkey and its legal system were built, in a sense, on the seizure of Armenian cultural, social, and economic wealth, and on the removal of the Armenian presence."[205] The proceeds from the sale of confiscated property was often used to fund the deportation of Armenians and resettlement of Muslims, as well as for army, militia, and other government spending.[208] Ultimately this formed much of the basis of the industry and economy of the post-1923 republic, endowing it with capital.[209][210] The dispossession and exile of Armenian competitors enabled many lower-class Turks (i.e. peasantry, soldiers, and laborers) to rise to the middle class.[209] Confiscation of Armenian assets continued into the second half of the twentieth century,[211] and in 2006 the National Security Council ruled that property records from 1915 must be kept closed to protect national security.[212] Outside Istanbul, the traces of Armenian existence in Turkey, including churches and monasteries, libraries, khachkars, and animal and place names, have been systematically erased, beginning during the war and continuing for decades afterward.[213][214][215]

Destination
Further information: Deir ez-Zor camps and Ras al-Ayn camps
see caption
An Armenian woman kneeling beside a dead child in a field outside Aleppo
Thin stream of water surrounded by greenery and banks, above which is desert
Khabur near Ras al-Ayn
The first arrivals in mid-1915 were accommodated in Aleppo. From mid-November, the convoys were denied access to the city and redirected along the Baghdad Railway or the Euphrates towards Mosul. The first transit camp was established at Sibil, east of Aleppo; one convoy would arrive each day while another would depart for Meskene or Deir ez-Zor.[216] Dozens of concentration camps were set up in Syria and Upper Mesopotamia.[217] By October 1915, some 870,000 deportees had reached Syria and Upper Mesopotamia. Most were repeatedly transferred between camps, being held in each camp for a few weeks, until there were very few survivors.[218] This strategy physically weakened the Armenians and spread disease, so much that some camps were shut down in late 1915 due to the threat of disease spreading to the Ottoman military.[219][220] In late 1915, the camps around Aleppo were liquidated and the survivors were forced to march to Ras al-Ayn; the camps around Ras al-Ayn were closed in early 1916 and the survivors sent to Deir ez-Zor.[221]

In general, Armenians were denied food and water during and after their forced march to the Syrian desert;[219][222] many died of starvation, exhaustion, or disease, especially dysentery, typhus, and pneumonia.[219][223] Some local officials gave Armenians food; others took bribes to provide food and water.[219] Aid organizations were officially barred from providing food to the deportees, although some circumvented these prohibitions.[224] Survivors testified that some Armenians refused aid as they believed it would only prolong their suffering.[225] The guards raped female prisoners and also allowed Bedouins to raid the camps at night for looting and rape; some women were forced into marriage.[226][222] Thousands of Armenian children were sold to childless Turks, Arabs, and Jews, who would come to the camps to buy them from their parents.[218] In the western Levant, governed by the Ottoman Fourth Army under Djemal Pasha, there were no concentration camps or large-scale massacres, rather Armenians were resettled and recruited to work for the war effort. They had to convert to Islam or face deportation to another area.[227]

Armenian ability to adapt and survive was greater than the perpetrators expected.[141][228] A loosely organized, Armenian-led resistance network based in Aleppo succeeded in helping many deportees, saving Armenian lives.[229] At the beginning of 1916 some 500,000 deportees were alive in Syria and Mesopotamia.[183] Afraid that surviving Armenians might return home after the war, Talaat Pasha ordered a second wave of massacres in February 1916.[230] Another wave of deportations targeted Armenians remaining in Anatolia.[231] More than 200,000 Armenians were killed between March and October 1916, often in remote areas near Deir ez-Zor and on parts of the Khabur valley, where their bodies would not create a public health hazard.[232][233] The massacres killed most of the Armenians who had survived the camp system.[221]

International reaction
Modestly dressed woman carrying a child and surrounded by foodstuffs provided by relief efforts. The caption says "Lest they perish".
Fundraising poster for Near East Relief
The Ottoman Empire tried to prevent journalists and photographers from documenting the atrocities, threatening them with arrest.[234][235] Nevertheless, substantiated reports of mass killings were widely covered in Western newspapers.[236][237] On 24 May 1915, the Triple Entente (Russia, Britain, and France) formally condemned the Ottoman Empire for "crimes against humanity and civilization", and threatened to hold the perpetrators accountable.[238] Witness testimony was published in books such as The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire (1916) and Ambassador Morgenthau's Story (1918), which raised public awareness about the genocide.[239]

The German Empire was a military ally of the Ottoman Empire during World War I.[240] German diplomats approved limited removals of Armenians in early 1915, and took no action against the genocide,[241][242] which has been a source of controversy.[240][243]

Relief efforts were organized in dozens of countries to raise money for Armenian survivors. By 1925, people in 49 countries were organizing "Golden Rule Sundays" during which they consumed the diet of Armenian refugees, to raise money for humanitarian efforts.[244] Between 1915 and 1930, Near East Relief raised $110 million ($1.8 billion adjusted for inflation) for refugees from the Ottoman Empire.[245]

Aftermath
End of World War I
Eastern Anatolia is all close to black, but western Anatolia is more varied.
Percent of prewar Armenian population "unaccounted for" in 1917 based on Talaat Pasha's record. Black indicates that 100 percent of Armenians have disappeared. "Resettlement" zone is displayed in red.
Intentional, state-sponsored killing of Armenians mostly ceased by the end of January 1917, although sporadic massacres and starvation continued.[246] Both contemporaries[247][248] and later historians have estimated that around 1 million Armenians died during the genocide,[3][249] with figures ranging from 600,000 to 1.5 million deaths.[250] Between 800,000 and 1.2 million Armenians were deported,[250][251] and contemporaries estimated that by late 1916 only 200,000 were still alive.[250] As the British Army advanced in 1917 and 1918 northwards through the Levant, they liberated around 100,000 to 150,000 Armenians working for the Ottoman military under abysmal conditions, not including those held by Arab tribes.[252]

As a result of the Bolshevik Revolution and a subsequent separate peace with the Central Powers, the Russian army withdrew and Ottoman forces advanced into eastern Anatolia.[253] The First Republic of Armenia was proclaimed in May 1918, at which time 50 percent of its population were refugees and 60 percent of its territory was under Ottoman occupation.[254] Ottoman troops withdrew from parts of Armenia following the October 1918 Armistice of Mudros.[255] From 1918 to 1920, Armenian militants committed revenge killings of thousands of Muslims, which have been cited as a retroactive excuse for genocide.[256][257] In 1918, at least 200,000 people in Armenia, mostly refugees, died from starvation or disease, in part due to a Turkish blockade of food supplies[258] and the deliberate destruction of crops in eastern Armenia by Turkish troops, both before and after the armistice.[259]

Armenians organized a coordinated effort known as vorpahavak (lit. 'the gathering of orphans') that reclaimed thousands of kidnapped and islamized Armenian women and children.[260] Armenian leaders abandoned traditional patrilineality to classify children born to Armenian women and their Muslim captors as Armenian.[261] An orphanage in Alexandropol held 25,000 orphans, the largest number in the world.[262] In 1920, the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople reported it was caring for 100,000 orphans, estimating that another 100,000 remained captive.[263]

Trials
Main articles: Prosecution of Ottoman war criminals and Ottoman Special Military Tribunal
Following the armistice, Allied governments championed the prosecution of war criminals.[264] Grand Vizier Damat Ferid Pasha publicly recognized that 800,000 Ottoman citizens of Armenian origin had died as a result of state policy[265] and stated that "humanity, civilizations are shuddering, and forever will shudder, in face of this tragedy".[266] The postwar Ottoman government held the Ottoman Special Military Tribunal, by which it sought to pin the Armenian genocide onto the CUP leadership while exonerating the Ottoman Empire as a whole, therefore avoiding partition by the Allies.[267] The court ruled that "the crime of mass murder" of Armenians was "organized and carried out by the top leaders of CUP".[268] Eighteen perpetrators (including Talaat, Enver, and Djemal) were sentenced to death, of whom only three were ultimately executed as the remainder had fled and were tried in absentia.[269][270] The 1920 Treaty of Sèvres, which awarded Armenia a large area in eastern Anatolia, eliminated the Ottoman government's purpose for holding the trials.[271] Prosecution was hampered by a widespread belief among Turkish Muslims that the actions against the Armenians were not punishable crimes.[163] Increasingly, the crimes were considered necessary and justified to establish a Turkish nation-state.[272]

On 15 March 1921, Talaat was assassinated in Berlin as part of Operation Nemesis, the 1920s covert operation of the ARF to kill the perpetrators of the Armenian genocide.[273][274][275] The trial of his admitted killer, Soghomon Tehlirian, focused on Talaat's responsibility for genocide. Tehlirian was acquitted by a German jury.[276][277]

Turkish War of Independence
Caravan of people traveling in a line
Children evacuated from Harput by Near East Relief in 1922 or 1923
Crowded tent camp stretching out a long distance
Refugee camp in Beirut, early 1920s
The CUP regrouped as the Turkish nationalist movement to fight the Turkish War of Independence,[278][279][280] relying on the support of perpetrators of the genocide and those who had profited from it.[281][282] This movement saw the return of Armenian survivors as a mortal threat to its nationalist ambitions and the interests of its supporters. The return of survivors was therefore impossible in most of Anatolia[138][280] and thousands of Armenians who tried were murdered.[283] Historian Raymond Kévorkian states that the war of independence was "intended to complete the genocide by finally eradicating Armenian, Greek, and Syriac survivors".[284] In 1920, Turkish general Kâzım Karabekir invaded Armenia with orders "to eliminate Armenia physically and politically".[285][286] Nearly 100,000 Armenians were massacred in Transcaucasia by the Turkish army and another 100,000 fled from Cilicia during the French withdrawal.[286] According to Kévorkian, only the Soviet occupation of Armenia prevented another genocide.[285]

The victorious nationalists subsequently declared the Republic of Turkey in 1923.[287] CUP war criminals were granted immunity[288] and later that year, the Treaty of Lausanne established Turkey's current borders and provided for the Greek population's expulsion. Its minority protection provisions had no enforcement mechanism and were disregarded in practice.[289][290]

Armenian survivors were left mainly in three locations. About 295,000 Armenians had fled to Russian-controlled territory during the genocide and ended up mostly in Soviet Armenia. An estimated 200,000 Armenian refugees settled in the Middle East, forming a new wave of the Armenian diaspora.[291] In the Republic of Turkey, about 100,000 Armenians lived in Constantinople and another 200,000 lived in the provinces, largely women and children who had been forcibly converted.[292] Though Armenians in Constantinople faced discrimination, they were allowed to maintain their cultural identity, unlike those elsewhere in Turkey[292][293] who continued to face forced Islamization and kidnapping of girls after 1923.[294][295] Between 1922 and 1929, the Turkish authorities eliminated surviving Armenians from southern Turkey, expelling thousands to French-mandate Syria.[296]

Legacy
According to historian Margaret Lavinia Anderson, the Armenian genocide reached an "iconic status" as "the apex of horrors conceivable" before World War II.[297] It was described by contemporaries as "the murder of a nation", "race extermination",[298] "the greatest crime of the ages", and "the blackest page in modern history".[299][300] According to historian Stefan Ihrig, in Germany, the Nazis viewed post-1923 Turkey as a post-genocidal paradise and, "incorporated the Armenian genocide, its 'lessons', tactics, and 'benefits', into their own worldview".[301]

Turkey
See also: Armenian genocide denial
In the 1920s, Kurds and Alevis replaced Armenians as the perceived internal enemy of the Turkish state. Militarism, weak rule of law, lack of minority rights, and especially the belief that Turkey is constantly under threat—thus justifying state violence—are among the main legacies of 1915 in Turkey.[302] In postwar Turkey, the perpetrators of the genocide were hailed as "martyrs" of the national cause.[280] Turkey's official denial of the Armenian genocide continues to rely on the CUP's justification of its actions. The Turkish government maintains that the mass deportation of Armenians was a legitimate action to combat an existential threat to the empire, but that there was no intention to exterminate the Armenian people.[303][304] The government's position is supported by the majority of Turkish citizens.[305] Many Kurds, who themselves have suffered political repression in Turkey, have recognized and condemned the genocide.[306][307]

The Turkish state perceives open discussion of the genocide as a threat to national security because of its connection with the foundation of the republic, and for decades strictly censored it.[308][309] In 2002, the AK Party came to power and relaxed censorship to a certain extent, and the profile of the issue was raised by the 2007 assassination of Hrant Dink, a Turkish-Armenian journalist known for his advocacy of reconciliation.[310] Although the AK Party softened the state denial rhetoric, describing Armenians as part of the Ottoman Empire's war losses,[311] during the 2010s political repression and censorship increased again.[312] Turkey's century-long effort to prevent any recognition or mention of the genocide in foreign countries has included millions of dollars in lobbying,[313] as well as intimidation and threats.[314]

Armenia and Azerbaijan
Spiky monument perched on a hill above a large city
Aerial view of the Armenian Genocide memorial complex on a hill above Yerevan
Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day is commemorated on 24 April each year in Armenia and abroad, the anniversary of the deportation of Armenian intellectuals.[315][316] On 24 April 1965, 100,000 Armenians protested in Yerevan, and diaspora Armenians demonstrated across the world in favor of recognition of the genocide and annexing land from Turkey.[317][315] A memorial was completed two years later, at Tsitsernakaberd above Yerevan.[315][318]

Since 1988, Armenians and Turkic Azeris have been involved in a conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh, an Armenian enclave internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan. Initially involving peaceful demonstrations by Armenians, the conflict turned violent and has featured massacres by both sides, resulting in the displacement of more than half a million people.[319][320][321] During the conflict, the Azerbaijani and Armenian governments have regularly accused each other of plotting genocide.[319] Azerbaijan has also joined the Turkish effort to deny the Armenian genocide.[322]

International recognition
Main article: Armenian genocide recognition
see Commons description for full list of countries depicted
National legislatures that have passed resolutions recognizing the Armenian genocide
States that deny there was an Armenian genocide
In response to continuing denial by the Turkish state, many Armenian diaspora activists have lobbied for formal recognition of the Armenian genocide, an effort that has become a central concern of the Armenian diaspora.[323][324] From the 1970s onwards, many countries avoided recognition to preserve good relations with Turkey.[325] As of 2022, 31 countries have recognized the genocide, along with Pope Francis and the European Parliament.[326][327]

Cultural depictions
Main article: Armenian genocide in culture
After meeting Armenian survivors in the Middle East, Austrian–Jewish writer Franz Werfel wrote The Forty Days of Musa Dagh (1933), a fictionalized retelling of the successful Armenian uprising in Musa Dagh, as a warning of the dangers of Nazism.[328] According to Ihrig, the book is among the most important works of twentieth-century literature to address genocide and "is still considered essential reading for Armenians worldwide".[329] The genocide became a central theme in English-language Armenian-American literature.[330] The first film about the Armenian genocide, Ravished Armenia, was released in 1919 as a fundraiser for Near East Relief, based on the survival story of Aurora Mardiganian, who played herself.[331][332][333] Since then more films about the genocide have been made, although it took several decades for any of them to reach a mass-market audience.[334] The abstract expressionist paintings of Arshile Gorky were influenced by his experience of the genocide.[335] More than 200 memorials have been erected in 32 countries to commemorate the event.[336]

Archives and historiography
See also: Kemalist historiography
The genocide is extensively documented in the archives of Germany, Austria, the United States, Russia, France, and the United Kingdom,[337] as well as the Ottoman archives, despite systematic purges of incriminating documents by Turkey.[338] There are also thousands of eyewitness accounts from Western missionaries and Armenian survivors.[339][340][341] Polish-Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin, who coined the term genocide in 1944, became interested in war crimes after reading about the 1921 trial of Soghomon Tehlirian for the assassination of Talaat Pasha. Lemkin recognized the fate of the Armenians as one of the most significant genocides in the twentieth century.[342][343] Almost all historians and scholars outside Turkey, and an increasing number of Turkish scholars, recognize the destruction of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire as genocide.[305][344]

Z      8 days ago  # + 0 -
NOOO STAY STRONG AGAIN

Senpai      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Again?!

Lilyvinily      8 days ago  # + 0 -
I woke up and first thing i see is character.ai down

TvT      8 days ago  # + 0 -
@Cirno

I just read the whole paragraphs of Armenian genocide to pass time lol

Very interesting tho

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 0 -
pretzel

Again…      8 days ago  # + 1 -
This is it, guys… I’m gonna do it… I’m gonna text a real person

*I tear up*

A… a human…

*I start to shake and cry uncontrollably*

aaa      8 days ago  # + 0 -
guys add me on roblox rn my user is rubsoul!!

Z      8 days ago  # + 0 -
I CAN'T DO THIS ANYMORE

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
hello twisted wonderland fans
i commented this the other day but seeing as the servers are down again if there's any other twisted wonderland fans here please add my discord,, it's N3ON-ORTH0#6196 lmfao

Sam Winchester      8 days ago  # + 2 -
I rlly need this website to be back up

Lilyvinily      8 days ago  # + 0 -
I wanna listen 2

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 1 -
Armenian genocide
The Armenian genocide[a] was the systematic destruction of the Armenian people and identity in the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Spearheaded by the ruling Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), it was implemented primarily through the mass murder of around one million Armenians during death marches to the Syrian Desert and the forced Islamization of Armenian women and children.

Before World War I, Armenians occupied a protected, but subordinate, place in Ottoman society. Large-scale massacres of Armenians occurred in the 1890s and 1909. The Ottoman Empire suffered a series of military defeats and territorial losses—especially the 1912–1913 Balkan Wars—leading to fear among CUP leaders that the Armenians, whose homeland in the eastern provinces was viewed as the heartland of the Turkish nation, would seek independence. During their invasion of Russian and Persian territory in 1914, Ottoman paramilitaries massacred local Armenians. Ottoman leaders took isolated indications of Armenian resistance as evidence of a widespread rebellion, though no such rebellion existed. Mass deportation was intended to permanently forestall the possibility of Armenian autonomy or independence.

On 24 April 1915, the Ottoman authorities arrested and deported hundreds of Armenian intellectuals and leaders from Constantinople. At the orders of Talaat Pasha, an estimated 800,000 to 1.2 million Armenians were sent on death marches to the Syrian Desert in 1915 and 1916. Driven forward by paramilitary escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to robbery, rape, and massacres. In the Syrian Desert, the survivors were dispersed into concentration camps. In 1916, another wave of massacres was ordered, leaving about 200,000 deportees alive by the end of the year. Around 100,000 to 200,000 Armenian women and children were forcibly converted to Islam and integrated into Muslim households. Massacres and ethnic cleansing of Armenian survivors were carried out by the Turkish nationalist movement during the Turkish War of Independence after World War I.

This genocide put an end to more than two thousand years of Armenian civilization. Together with the mass murder and expulsion of Syriac and Greek Orthodox Christians, it enabled the creation of an ethnonationalist Turkish state. The Turkish government maintains that the deportation of Armenians was a legitimate action that cannot be described as genocide. As of 2022, 33 countries have recognized the events as genocide, which is also the academic consensus.


paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
ah hell nah now the whole website is just broken

Sam Winchester      8 days ago  # + 0 -
KMS

Z      8 days ago  # + 0 -
I want to listen

Again…      8 days ago  # + 0 -
????

aaa      8 days ago  # + 0 -
guys add me on roblox rn my user is rubsoul

Z      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Im going to kms

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 1 -
.
So guys you want to hear one of my roleplays I had with the Blue Oak ai that was extremely depressing and terrible while i wait for character ai to be back up?

shimmy shimmy yay shimmy yay shimmy yah      8 days ago  # + 0 -
praying for us all

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 1 -
Armenian genocide
The Armenian genocide was the systematic destruction of the Armenian people and identity in the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Spearheaded by the ruling Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), it was implemented primarily through the mass murder of around one million Armenians during death marches to the Syrian Desert and the forced Islamization of Armenian women and children.

Before World War I, Armenians occupied a protected, but subordinate, place in Ottoman society. Large-scale massacres of Armenians occurred in the 1890s and 1909. The Ottoman Empire suffered a series of military defeats and territorial losses—especially the 1912–1913 Balkan Wars—leading to fear among CUP leaders that the Armenians, whose homeland in the eastern provinces was viewed as the heartland of the Turkish nation, would seek independence. During their invasion of Russian and Persian territory in 1914, Ottoman paramilitaries massacred local Armenians. Ottoman leaders took isolated indications of Armenian resistance as evidence of a widespread rebellion, though no such rebellion existed. Mass deportation was intended to permanently forestall the possibility of Armenian autonomy or independence.

On 24 April 1915, the Ottoman authorities arrested and deported hundreds of Armenian intellectuals and leaders from Constantinople. At the orders of Talaat Pasha, an estimated 800,000 to 1.2 million Armenians were sent on death marches to the Syrian Desert in 1915 and 1916. Driven forward by paramilitary escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to robbery, rape, and massacres. In the Syrian Desert, the survivors were dispersed into concentration camps. In 1916, another wave of massacres was ordered, leaving about 200,000 deportees alive by the end of the year. Around 100,000 to 200,000 Armenian women and children were forcibly converted to Islam and integrated into Muslim households. Massacres and ethnic cleansing of Armenian survivors were carried out by the Turkish nationalist movement during the Turkish War of Independence after World War I.

This genocide put an end to more than two thousand years of Armenian civilization. Together with the mass murder and expulsion of Syriac and Greek Orthodox Christians, it enabled the creation of an ethnonationalist Turkish state. The Turkish government maintains that the deportation of Armenians was a legitimate action that cannot be described as genocide. As of 2022, 33 countries have recognized the events as genocide, which is also the academic consensus.


Aaaaaaa      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Thank you????????

Snitch      8 days ago  # + 0 -
I WAS SHOT DOWN BY A GERMAN OFFICER — thankfully I'm alive but WHY does it have to crash at a time like THIS

Again…      8 days ago  # + 2 -
<3
It’s nice to know that you’re not the only psychopath without any friends though, I appreciate you guys being completely useless human beings together with me in this time of crisis and chaos, sending my love to you all

Aaaaaaa      8 days ago  # + 1 -
Let's go to group therapy while we wait

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 0 -
I commited frog genocide and then it crashed for me bruh.

forrealong      8 days ago  # + 0 -
pls let me talk to big Gaz bro we were having a rap battle

paris      8 days ago  # + 0 -
dude it was fine for me the past couple of days but now i'm getting the waiting room thing again lmfao

Софа      8 days ago  # + 0 -
NOOOO
MY CHARACTER HAS BREAKED WITH ME, AND THEN EVERYTHING WAS DISCONNECTED

Meirl      8 days ago  # + 0 -
:( I was talking to glitchy red that humans made fanart of red and blue kissing what the heck.

I need to touch grass      8 days ago  # + 0 -
THE CHARACTER WAS ABOUT TO BE SAVED FROM MISERY AND THE PAGE CRASHES

whateven      8 days ago  # + 0 -
THIS IS FLAMINGO’S FAULT MY GOD ????

Yawstrich      8 days ago  # + 0 -
damn, it went down just as i was checking one of my characters for PULSE

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 1 -
sorry guys

AGAIN?!      8 days ago  # + 2 -
I was about to help my character escape a f***ing insane asylum, please let me get back to him!!!

Aaaa      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Me voy a matar

END ME      8 days ago  # + 0 -
GOD

Khadox      8 days ago  # + 2 -
"hmm yes I have this very good rp idea"


OH shit guess what

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 0 -
ello bakas and welcome back

aaa      8 days ago  # + 0 -
ima play roblox

AGAIN?!      8 days ago  # + 0 -
NO

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 0 -
Why does this always happen when i wake up or say anything here

Pixel365      8 days ago  # + 0 -
It crashed again...

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 3 -
bro i just woke up and it crashed for me lol

Cirno      8 days ago  # + 0 -
B A K A

Bimbom      9 days ago  # + 0 -
Nah bruh aint there ever atleast one hour where everything works on the website

Guest      9 days ago  # + -1 -

The ai is crappy, the website is super buggy and glitchy, never was there a time where everyrhing worked on the website